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Robin Hood
ROBIN HOOD is a heroic outlaw in English folklore
English folklore
who, according to legend, was a highly skilled archer and swordsman . Traditionally depicted as being dressed in Lincoln green
Lincoln green
, he is often portrayed as 'robbing from the rich and giving to the poor' alongside his band of Merry Men . Robin Hood
Robin Hood
became a popular folk figure in the late-medieval period, and continues to be widely represented in literature, films and television
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John Stow
JOHN STOW (also STOWE; 1524/25 – 5 April 1605) was an English historian and antiquarian , best known for his Survey of London (1598; second edition 1603). CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 2.1 Survey of London * 3 Later years and death * 4 Commemoration * 5 References * 5.1 Edition * 5.2 Further reading * 6 External links LIFE John Stow
John Stow
was born in about 1525 in the City parish of St Michael, Cornhill , then at the heart of London's metropolis. His father, Thomas Stow, was a tallow chandler . Thomas Stow is recorded as paying rent of 6s 8d per year for the family dwelling, and as a youth Stow would fetch milk every morning from a farm on the land nearby to the east owned by the Minoresses of the Convent of St. Clare
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Sword
A SWORD is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger . The precise definition of the term varies with the historical epoch or the geographical region under consideration. A sword consists of a long blade attached to a hilt . The blade can be straight or curved. Thrusting swords have a pointed tip on the blade, and tend to be straighter; slashing swords have sharpened cutting edge on one or both sides of the blade, and are more likely to be curved. Many swords are designed for both thrusting and slashing. Historically, the sword developed in the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
, evolving from the dagger ; the earliest specimens date to about 1600 BC. The later Iron Age sword remained fairly short and without a crossguard
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Peasant
A PEASANT is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer , especially one living in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord. In Europe, peasants were divided into three classes according to their personal status: slave , serf , and free tenant. Peasants either hold title to land in fee simple , or hold land by any of several forms of land tenure , among them socage , quit-rent , leasehold , and copyhold . The word "peasant" is—and long has been—often used pejoratively to refer to poor or landless farmers and agricultural workers, especially in the poorer countries of the world in which the agricultural labor force makes up a large percentage of the population. The implication of the term is that the "peasant" is uneducated, ignorant, and unfamiliar with the more sophisticated mannerisms of the urban population
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Knight
A KNIGHT is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors . During the High Middle Ages , knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility . By the Late Middle Ages , the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry , a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback . Knighthood in the Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (and especially the joust ) from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century
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Page (occupation)
A PAGE or PAGE BOY is traditionally a young male attendant or servant , but may also have been used for a messenger at the service of a nobleman. The origin of the term is uncertain, but it may come either from the Latin pagus (servant), possibly linked to peasant , or an earlier Greek word παῖς (pais = child). During wedding ceremonies, a page boy is often used as a symbolic attendant to carry the rings, a role comparable to the scattering of flower petals by flower girls . CONTENTS * 1 The medieval page * 2 The household page * 3 The decorative page * 4 Modern pages * 5 See also * 6 References THE MEDIEVAL PAGE Alof de Wignacourt and a page , by Caravaggio
Caravaggio
. Louvre
Louvre
, Paris
Paris
. In medieval times , a page was an attendant to a nobleman, a knight , a Governor or a Castellan
Castellan

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Exeter
EXETER (/ˈɛksᵻtər/ ( listen )) is a cathedral city in Devon
Devon
, England
England
with a population of 129,800 (mid-2016 est.). It lies within the county of Devon, of which it is the county town as well as the home of Devon
Devon
County
County
Council . The administrative area has the status of a non-metropolitan district under the administration of the County Council; a plan to grant the city unitary authority status was scrapped under the 2010 coalition government . The city is on the River Exe
River Exe
about 37 miles (60 km) northeast of Plymouth
Plymouth
and 70 miles (110 km) southwest of Bristol
Bristol
. Exeter
Exeter
was the most south-westerly Roman fortified settlement in Britain , although there is evidence a Cornish tribe existed in Exeter before the Roman invasion
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Cambridge University
The UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE (informally CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY) is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge
Cambridge
, England
England
. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge
Cambridge
is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's third-oldest surviving university . The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
after a dispute with the townspeople. The two medieval universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as " Oxbridge
Oxbridge
". Cambridge
Cambridge
is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools
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Plebs
In ancient Rome , the PLEBS was the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians , as determined by the census . From the 4th century BC or earlier, they were known as commoners (part of the lower social status). Literary references to the plebs, however, usually mean the ordinary citizens of Rome as a whole, as distinguished from the elite—a sense retained by "plebeian" in English. In the very earliest days of Rome, plebeians were any tribe or clan without advisers to the King. In time, the word – which is related to the Greek word for crowd, plethos – came to mean the common people. CONTENTS* 1 In ancient Rome * 1.1 Noble Plebeians * 2 United States military academies * 3 British Empire * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links IN ANCIENT ROMEIn Latin the word plebs is a singular collective noun , and its genitive is plebis
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Feudalism
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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Parish Ale
The PARISH ALE or CHURCH ALE was a party or festivity in an English parish at which ale was the chief drink. These were typically fundraising occasions for the parish, which might include music, dancing and other activities. Very common in the later Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, they encountered some opposition after the English Reformation
English Reformation
, though some survived until modern times in some form. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Significance * 3 Description * 4 See also * 5 References TYPESThe word "ale", in the sense of an ale-drinking party, was part of many compound terms for types of party or festivity based on the consumption of ale or beer
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Star Chamber
The STAR CHAMBER ( Latin
Latin
: Camera stellata) was an English court of law which sat at the royal Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
, from the late 15th century to the mid-17th century (c. 1641), and was composed of Privy Councillors and common-law judges, to supplement the judicial activities of the common-law and equity courts in civil and criminal matters. The Star Chamber
Star Chamber
was originally established to ensure the fair enforcement of laws against socially and politically prominent people so powerful that ordinary courts would probably hesitate to convict them of their crimes. However, it became synonymous with social and political oppression through the arbitrary use and abuse of the power it wielded. In modern usage, legal or administrative bodies with strict, arbitrary rulings and secretive proceedings are sometimes called, metaphorically or poetically, star chambers
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King Of The May
The KING OF THE MAY is a figure in the mythology of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
, as well as a folk custom. Every year, or every seven years, a man from the village would be chosen to represent the King of the May. He would bring fertility to the village, and during the time that he was in power, he could impregnate any woman in the village. At the end of his "reign," he would be ritually sacrificed and a new King of the May would be chosen. According to J.G. Frazer's The Golden Bough
The Golden Bough
, this type of custom was derived from earlier Indo-European tree worship fertility rituals. SEE ALSO * The Golden Bough
The Golden Bough
* Sacred king
Sacred king
* John Barleycorn
John Barleycorn
REFERENCES * ^ Frazer, J. (1900). The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Macmillan, pp
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Noble Court
The COURT of a monarch , or an important nobleman , is the extended household and all those who regularly attend on the ruler or central figure. The court of the monarchy would gather in the throne room . In the largest courts, the royal households , many thousands of individuals comprised the court. These courtiers included the monarch or noble's camarilla and retinue , household , nobility , those with court appointments , bodyguard , and may also include emissaries from other kingdoms or visitors to the court. Foreign princes and foreign nobility in exile may also seek refuge at a court. Near Eastern
Near Eastern
and Eastern courts often included the harem and concubines as well as eunuchs who fulfilled a variety of functions. At times, the harem was walled off and separate from the rest of the residence of the monarch. In Asia
Asia
, concubines were often a more visible part of the court
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Elizabethan Era
The ELIZABETHAN ERA is the epoch in English history marked by the reign of Queen Elizabeth I
Queen Elizabeth I
(1558–1603). Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history. The symbol of