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Robert Holdstock
ROBERT PAUL HOLDSTOCK (2 August 1948 – 29 November 2009) was an English novelist and author best known for his works of Celtic , Nordic , Gothic and Pictish fantasy literature , predominantly in the fantasy subgenre of mythic fiction . Holdstock broke into print in 1968. His science fiction and fantasy works explore philosophical , psychological , anthropological , spiritual , and woodland themes. He received three BSFA awards and won the World Fantasy
Fantasy
Award in the category of Best Novel of 1985. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Writings * 3 Critical reception * 4 Book Covers * 5 Awards * 6 Select Bibliography * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links BIOGRAPHYRobert Holdstock, the oldest of five children, was born in Hythe, Kent . His father, Robert Frank Holdstock, was a police officer and his mother, Kathleen Madeline Holdstock, was a nurse. At the age of seven Robert started attending Gillingham Grammar School in the Medway Towns . As a young adult he had jobs including banana boatman , construction worker and slate miner . He also earned a Bachelor of Science from University College of North Wales , Bangor, with honours in applied Zoology
Zoology
(1967–1970)
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Épinal
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 _Population without double counting _: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once
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Hythe, Kent
HYTHE /ˈhaɪð/ , is a small coastal market town on the edge of Romney Marsh , in the District of Shepway (derived from Sheep Way) on the south coast of Kent
Kent
. The word Hythe or Hithe is an Old English word meaning haven or landing place. The town has medieval and Georgian buildings, as well as a Saxon /Norman church on the hill and a Victorian seafront promenade . Hythe was once defended by two castles, Saltwood and Lympne
Lympne
. The town hall, a former guildhall, was built in 1794, its fireplace designed by the Adam Brothers . Hythe's market once took place in Market Square (now Red Lion Square) close to where there is now a farmers' market every second and fourth Saturday of the month. Hythe has gardening, horse riding, bowling, tennis, cricket, football, squash and sailing clubs. Lord Deedes was patron of Hythe Civic Society, and the hounds of the East Kent
Kent
Hunt are kennelled in nearby Elham . As an important Cinque Port Hythe once possessed a bustling harbour which, over the past three hundred years, has now disappeared due to silting. Hythe was the central Cinque Port, sitting between Hastings and New Romney to the west and Dover
Dover
and Sandwich to the east
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Fantasy
FANTASY is a fiction genre set in an imaginary universe , often (but not always) without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Its roots are in oral traditions, which then developed into literature and drama . From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, television, graphic novels, and video games. Most fantasy uses magic or other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme , or setting . Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds. Fantasy is a subgenre of speculative fiction and is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes respectively, though these genres overlap. In popular culture , the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, however, fantasy comprises works by many writers, artists, filmmakers, and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Fantasy is studied in a number of disciplines including English and other language studies, cultural studies , comparative literature , history and medieval studies . Work in this area ranges widely from the structuralist theory of Tzvetan Todorov , which emphasizes the fantastic as a liminal space , to work on the connections (political, historical and literary) between medievalism and popular culture
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Science Fiction
SCIENCE FICTION (often shortened to SF, SCI-FI or SCIFI) is a genre of speculative fiction , typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as futuristic science and technology , space travel , time travel , faster than light travel , parallel universes , and extraterrestrial life . Science
Science
fiction often explores the potential consequences of scientific and other innovations , and has been called a "literature of ideas". It usually avoids the supernatural , and unlike the related genre of fantasy , historically, science-fiction stories were intended to have a grounding in science-based fact or theory at the time the story was created, but this connection is now limited to hard science fiction
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Horror Fiction
HORROR is a genre of fiction which is intended to, or has the capacity to frighten, scare, disgust, or startle its readers or viewers by inducing feelings of horror and terror . Literary historian J. A. Cuddon has defined the horror story as "a piece of fiction in prose of variable length... which shocks or even frightens the reader, or perhaps induces a feeling of repulsion or loathing". It creates an eerie and frightening atmosphere. Horror is frequently supernatural, though it can be non-supernatural. Often the central menace of a work of horror fiction can be interpreted as a metaphor for the larger fears of a society. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Horror in Ancient Greece and Rome * 1.2 Horror in the Medieval Era * 1.3 Gothic horror in the 18th century * 1.4 Horror in the 19th century * 1.5 Horror in the 20th century * 1.6 Contemporary horror fiction * 2 Characteristics * 3 Scholarship and criticism * 4 Awards and associations * 5 Alternate terms * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links HISTORYHORROR IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME Athenodorus The genre of horror has ancient origins with roots in folklore and religious traditions, focusing on death, the afterlife, evil, the demonic and the principle of the thing embodied in the person. These were manifested in stories of beings such as witchcraft , vampires , werewolves and ghosts
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Mythago Wood
MYTHAGO WOOD is a fantasy novel by British writer Robert Holdstock , published in the United Kingdom in 1984. The conception began as a short story written for the 1979 Milford Writer\'s Workshop ; later a novella of the same name appeared in the September 1981 edition of The Magazine of Fantasy
Fantasy
"> PRECEDED BY: Chronology of Events in Ryhope Wood: FOLLOWED BY: Gate of Ivory, Gate of Horn Mythago Wood Avilion SEE ALSO * Enchanted forest * Mythopoeia REFERENCES * ^ Newman, Kim St. James Guide to Fantasy
Fantasy
Writers, ed. David Pringle (Detroit: St. James Press, 1996), pages 285-286. * ^ Langford, David Supernatural Fiction Writers, Second Edition, Volume 1, ed. Richard Bleiler (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003), pages 445-453. * ^ A B Clute, John Look at the Evidence: Essays & Reviews, (Ann Arbor: Liverpool University Press, 1995), page 111. This essay originally appeared in the May/June 1989 (issue 29) magazine Interzone . * ^ Clute, John Look at the Evidence: Essays & Reviews, (Ann Arbor: Liverpool University Press, 1995), page 111. This essay was published originally in the May/June 1989 (issue 29) magazine Interzone . * ^ Moorcock, Michael Horror: The 100 Best Books, ed
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Novelist
A NOVELIST is an author or writer of novels , though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction . Some novelists are professional novelists, thus make a living writing novels and other fiction, while others aspire to support themselves in this way or write as an avocation . Most novelists struggle to get their debut novel published, but once published they often continue to be published, although very few become literary celebrities, thus gaining prestige or a considerable income from their work. Novelists come from a variety of backgrounds and social classes, and frequently this shapes the content of their works. Public reception of a novelist\'s work , the literary criticism commenting on it, and the novelists' incorporation of their own experiences into works and characters can lead to the author's personal life and identity being associated with a novel's fictional content. For this reason, the environment within which a novelist works and the reception of their novels by both the public and publishers can be influenced by their demographics or identity; important among these culturally constructed identities are gender , sexual identity , social class , race or ethnicity , nationality , religion , and an association with place . Similarly, some novelists have creative identities derived from their focus on different genres of fiction , such as crime , romance or historical novels
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Celts
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
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Nordic Countries
The NORDIC COUNTRIES or NORDICS are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic , where they are most commonly known as _NORDEN_ (lit. "the North"). They consist of Denmark , Finland
Finland
, Iceland
Iceland
, Norway
Norway
, and Sweden
Sweden
, including the associated territories of Greenland
Greenland
, the Faroe Islands , and the Åland Islands . The population of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
are mainly Scandinavian or Finnish , with Greenlandic Inuit and the Sami people as indigenous minorities. The native languages are Swedish , Danish , Norwegian , Icelandic and Faroese , all Germanic languages rooted in Old Norse . Native non- Germanic languages are Finnish , Greenlandic and several Sami languages . The main religion is Lutheran
Lutheran
Christianity
Christianity
. The Nordic countries
Nordic countries
have much in common in their way of life, history , religion, their use of Scandinavian languages and social structure . Politically, Nordic countries
Nordic countries
do not form a separate entity, but they co-operate in the Nordic Council
Nordic Council

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Goths
The GOTHS were an East Germanic people , two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths , played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe . The Goths dominated a vast area, which at its peak under the Germanic king Ermanaric and his sub-king Athanaric possibly extended all the way from the Danube to the Don , and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea . The Goths spoke the Gothic language, one of the extinct Eastern Germanic languages, last spoken in Crimea in the 18th century by the Crimean Goths; the least-powerful, least-known, and almost paradoxically, the longest-lasting of the Gothic communities. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Origins * 3 Migrations and contact with Rome * 4 Visigoths and Ostrogoths * 4.1 Visigoths * 4.2 Ostrogoths * 5 Culture * 5.1 Art * 5.2 Language * 5.3 Society * 5.4 Economy * 5.5 Religion * 6 Legacy * 6.1 In the sagas * 6.2 Ancients who wrote about the Goths * 7 References * 7.1 Sources ETYMOLOGY Götaland , south Sweden , with the island of Gotland in the east, a possible origin of the Goths
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Picts
The PICTS were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland
Scotland
during the Late Iron Age
Iron Age
and Early Medieval periods. They are thought to have been ethnolinguistically Celtic . Where they lived and what their culture was like can be inferred from the geographical distribution of brochs , Brittonic place name elements, and Pictish stones . Picts
Picts
are attested to in written records from before the Roman conquest of Britain to the 10th century, when they are thought to have merged with the Gaels . They lived to the north of the rivers Forth and Clyde , and spoke the now-extinct Pictish language , which is thought to have been closely related to the Celtic Brittonic language spoken by the Britons who lived to the south of them. Picts
Picts
are assumed to have been the descendants of the Caledonii and other tribes that were mentioned by Roman historians or on the world map of Ptolemy
Ptolemy
. Pictland, also called Pictavia by some sources, gradually merged with the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata to form the Kingdom of Alba (Scotland)
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Fantasy Literature
FANTASY LITERATURE is set in an imaginary universe , often but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Magic , the supernatural and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds. Fantasy is a subgenre of speculative fiction and is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes, respectively, though these genres overlap. Historically, most works of fantasy were written , however, since the 1960s, a growing segment of the fantasy genre has taken the form of films , television programs , graphic novels , video games , music and art. A numbering of fantasy novels originally written for children, such as _ Alice in Wonderland _, and the _ Hobbit _ also attract an adult audience. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Beginnings * 1.2 From the 13th century * 1.3 Renaissance * 1.4 Enlightenment * 1.5 Romanticism * 1.6 Victorian Period * 1.7 After 1901 * 2 Style * 3 See also * 4 Footnotes HISTORY Main articles: History of fantasy and Early history of fantasy BEGINNINGSStories involving magic and terrible monsters have existed in spoken forms before the advent of printed literature
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Fantasy Subgenres
WRITING GENRES (commonly known, more narrowly, as LITERARY GENRES) are determined by narrative technique , tone , content , and by critics' definitions of the genres. Writing genres may be FICTIONAL or NON-FICTIONAL. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it . CONTENTS* 1 Major genres * 1.1 Major genres * 2 Genre categories: fiction and nonfiction * 2.1 Common genres: fiction * 2.2 Common Genres: Non Fiction
Fiction
* 2.3 Literary fiction vs. Genre fiction * 3 Genres and subgenres * 4 Nonfiction genres * 5 References MAJOR GENRESMAJOR GENRES This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (August 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )Genre is a label that characterizes what a reader can expect in a work of literature. The major forms of literature can be written in various genres. Genre is a category characterized by similarities in style, or subject matter
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Mythic Fiction
MYTHIC FICTION is literature that is rooted in, inspired by, or that in some way draws from the tropes , themes and symbolism of myth , legend , folklore , and fairy tales . The term is widely credited to Charles de Lint and Terri Windling . Mythic fiction overlaps with urban fantasy and the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, but mythic fiction also includes contemporary works in non-urban settings. Mythic fiction refers to works of contemporary literature that often cross the divide between literary and fantasy fiction . Windling promoted mythic fiction as the co-editor (with Ellen Datlow ) of The Year\'s Best Fantasy
Fantasy
and Horror annual volumes for sixteen years, and as the editor of the Endicott Studio Journal of Mythic Arts. Though mythic fiction can be loosely based in mythology, it frequently uses familiar mythological personages archetypes (such as tricksters , or the thunderer ). This is in contrast to mythopoeia , such as the works of J. R. R. Tolkien , which invent their own legends and folklore or volunteer entirely new pantheons. A suggested mythic fiction reading list can be found at the Endicott Studio website: Mythic fiction Reading List
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Philosophy
PHILOSOPHY (from Greek φιλοσοφία, _philosophia_, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570–495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning , critical discussion , rational argument and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real ? However, philosophers might also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will ? Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy " encompassed astronomy , medicine and physics . For example, Newton 's 1687 _Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy _ later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology , sociology , linguistics and economics
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