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Robert H. Grubbs
Robert Howard Grubbs (born February 27, 1942) is an American chemist and the Victor and Elizabeth Atkins Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology
California Institute of Technology
in Southern California.[4] He was a co-recipient of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
for his work on olefin metathesis.[5] He is a co-founder of Materia, a University spin-off startup to produce catalysts.[6]Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career and research2.1 Commercial activities 2.2 Awards and honors3 Personal life 4 References 5 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Grubbs was born on February 27, 1942, on a farm in Marshall County, Kentucky, midway between Possum Trot and Calvert City.[7][8] His parents were Howard and Faye Grubbs.[7] Faye Grubbs was a schoolteacher
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Marshall County, Kentucky
Marshall County is a county located in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 31,448.[1] Its county seat is Benton.[2] It was a dry county until July 28, 2015, when residents voted for the county to go "wet"
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Max Planck Institute For Coal Research
The Max Planck Institute for Coal
Coal
Research (German: Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung) is an institute located in Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr, Germany
Germany
specializing in chemical research on catalysis.[1] It is one of the 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft)
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Calvert City, Kentucky
Calvert City
City
is a home rule-class city[2] in Marshall County, Kentucky, United States. The population was 2,701 at the 2000 census.Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Demographics 4 Economy 5 Arts and culture 6 Government 7 Media7.1 Newspaper 7.2 Radio8 Infrastructure8.1 Transportation9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit]Oak Hill, built by Potilla Calvert.Calvert City
City
was named for Potilla Willis Calvert
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin)
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Antiaromaticity
Antiaromaticity
Antiaromaticity
is a characteristic of a cyclic molecule with a π electron system that has higher energy due to the presence of 4n electrons in it. Unlike aromatic compounds, which follow Hückel's rule ([4n+2] π electrons)[1] and are highly stable, antiaromatic compounds are highly unstable and highly reactive. To avoid the instability of antiaromaticity, molecules may change shape, becoming non-planar and therefore breaking some of the π interactions. In contrast to the diamagnetic ring current present in aromatic compounds, antiaromatic compounds have a paramagnetic ring current, which can be observed by NMR
NMR
spectroscopy.Examples of antiaromatic compounds. A: pentalene; B: biphenylene; C: cyclopentadienyl cationExamples of antiaromatic compounds are pentalene (A), biphenylene (B), cyclopentadienyl cation (C)
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Cyclobutadiene
Cyclobutadiene
Cyclobutadiene
is an organic compound with the formula C4H4. It is very reactive owing to its tendency to dimerize. Although the parent compound has not been isolated, some substituted derivatives are robust and a single molecule of cyclobutadiene is quite stable. Since the compound degrades by a bimolecular process, the species can be observed by matrix isolation techniques at temperatures below 35 K. It is thought to adopt a rectangular, nonplanar structure.[1][2]Contents1 Structure and reactivity 2 Synthesis 3 Trapping 4 See also 5 ReferencesStructure and reactivity[edit] The compound is the prototypical antiaromatic hydrocarbon with 4 π-electrons. It is the smallest [n]-annulene ([4]-annulene)
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PhD
A Doctor of Philosophy
Philosophy
(PhD, Ph.D., DPhil, or Dr. phil.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy
Philosophy
degree may, in most jurisdictions, use the title Doctor (often abbreviated "Dr") or, in non-English speaking countries, variants such as "Dr. phil." with their name, and may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD" (depending on the awarding institute). The requirements to earn a PhD degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates
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Stanford University
Stanford University
University
(officially Leland Stanford
Leland Stanford
Junior University,[11] colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California. Because of its academic strength, wealth, and proximity to Silicon Valley, Stanford is often cited as one of the world's most prestigious universities.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19] The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford
Jane Stanford
in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford
Leland Stanford
Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a former Governor of California
California
and U.S. Senator; he made his fortune as a railroad tycoon
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National Institutes Of Health
The National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
(NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government
United States government
responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s. It is part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services with facilities mainly located in Bethesda, Maryland
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Michigan State University
Michigan
Michigan
State University (MSU) is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. MSU was founded in 1855 and served as a model for land-grant universities later created under the Morrill Act
Morrill Act
of 1862.[4] The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country's first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture.[5] After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, MSU is one of the largest universities in the United States
United States
(in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 552,000 living alumni worldwide.[2] MSU pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences
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Mülheim
Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr
Ruhr
(German pronunciation: [ˈmyːlhaɪm ʔan deːɐ̯ ˈʁuːɐ̯] ( listen)), also described as "City on the River", is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
in Germany. It is located in the Ruhr Area
Ruhr Area
between Duisburg, Essen, Oberhausen
Oberhausen
and Ratingen. It is home to many companies, especially in the food industry, such as the Aldi
Aldi
Süd Company, the Harke Group and the Tengelmann Group. Mülheim
Mülheim
received its town charter in 1808, and 100 years later the population exceeded 100,000, making Mülheim
Mülheim
officially a city
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University Spin-off
University
University
spin-offs transform technological inventions developed from university research that are likely to remain unexploited otherwise.[1] As such, university/academic spin-offs are a subcategory of research spin-offs. Prominent examples of university spin-offs are Genentech, Crucell, Lycos
Lycos
and Plastic Logic. In most countries, universities can claim the intellectual property (IP) rights on technologies developed in their laboratories. This IP typically draws on patents or, in exceptional cases, copyrights
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Alexander Von Humboldt Foundation
The Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
Foundation (German: Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung) is a foundation established by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and funded by the Federal Foreign Office, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development as well as other national and international partners; it promotes international academic cooperation between excellent scientists and scholars from Germany and from abroad.[1][2] Every year the Foundation grants more than 700 competitive research fellowships and awards, primarily going to academics from natural sciences (mathematics included) and the humanities.[3] It allows scientists and scholars from all over the world to come to Germany to work on a research project they have chosen themselves together with a host and collaborative partner
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Catalyst
Catalysis
Catalysis
(/kəˈtælɪsɪs/) is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst[1] (/ˈkætəlɪst/), which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Often only tiny amounts of catalyst are required in principle.[2] In general, the reactions occur faster with a catalyst because they require less activation energy. In catalyzed mechanisms, the catalyst usually reacts to form a temporary intermediate which then regenerates the original catalyst in a cyclic process. Catalysts may be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are dispersed in the same phase (usually gaseous or liquid) as the reactant molecules. A heterogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are not in the same phase as the reactants, which are typically gases or liquids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the solid catalyst
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