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River Mouth
A RIVER MOUTH is the part of a river where the river flows into another river, a lake , a reservoir , a sea or an ocean . CONTENTS * 1 Water motion * 2 Landforms * 3 Cultural influence * 4 See also * 5 References WATER MOTIONThe water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways. The motion of the river mainly depends on the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water and any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches . If the river water is denser than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface at the plunge curve. The river water will then either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. If the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is typically the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow
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River
A RIVER is a natural flowing watercourse , usually freshwater , flowing towards an ocean , sea , lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream , creek, brook, rivulet, and rill . There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features , although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are "run" in some parts of the United States, "burn " in Scotland and northeast England, and "beck" in northern England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle
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Lake
A LAKE is an area of variable size filled with water, localized in a basin , that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean , and therefore are distinct from lagoons , and are also larger and deeper than ponds , though there are no official or scientific definitions. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams , which are usually flowing. Most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams. Natural lakes are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones , and areas with ongoing glaciation . Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age . All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them
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Reservoir
A RESERVOIR (etymology : from French _réservoir_ a "storehouse" ) is a storage space for fluids. These fluids may be water, hydrocarbons or gas. A reservoir usually means an enlarged NATURAL or ARTIFICIAL LAKE, STORAGE POND or IMPOUNDMENT created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created by controlling a stream that drains an existing body of water. They can also be constructed in river valleys using a dam. Alternately, a reservoir can be built by excavating flat ground or constructing retaining walls and levees . _Tank reservoirs_ store liquids or gases in storage tanks that may be elevated, at grade level, or buried. Tank reservoirs for water are also called cisterns . Underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum , below ground
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Ocean
An OCEAN (from Ancient Greek Ὠκεανός, transc. _ Okeanós _, the sea of classical antiquity ) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet 's hydrosphere . On Earth , an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World Ocean . These are, in descending order by area, the Pacific , Atlantic , Indian , Southern (Antarctic), and Arctic Oceans. The word _sea _ is often used interchangeably with "ocean" in American English but, strictly speaking, a sea is a body of saline water (generally a division of the world ocean) partly or fully enclosed by land. Saline water covers approximately 360,000,000 km2 (140,000,000 sq mi) and is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas, with the ocean covering approximately 71% of Earth's surface and 90% of the Earth's biosphere
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Tides
TIDES are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth . The times and amplitude of tides at any given locale are influenced by the alignment of the Sun and Moon, by the pattern of tides in the deep ocean , by the amphidromic systems of the oceans, and the shape of the coastline and near-shore bathymetry (see _Timing _). Some shorelines experience a semi-diurnal tide—two nearly equal high and low tides each day. Other locations experience a diurnal tide—only one high and low tide each day. A "mixed tide"—two uneven tides a day, or one high and one low—is also possible. Tides vary on timescales ranging from hours to years due to a number of factors. To make accurate records, tide gauges at fixed stations measure water level over time. Gauges ignore variations caused by waves with periods shorter than minutes
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Seiches
A SEICHE (/ˈseɪʃ/ SAYSH ) is a standing wave in an enclosed or partially enclosed body of water. Seiches and seiche-related phenomena have been observed on lakes, reservoirs , swimming pools, bays, harbours and seas. The key requirement for formation of a seiche is that the body of water be at least partially bounded, allowing the formation of the standing wave. The term was promoted by the Swiss hydrologist François-Alphonse Forel in 1890, who was the first to make scientific observations of the effect in Lake Geneva , Switzerland
Switzerland
. The word originates in a Swiss French dialect word that means "to sway back and forth", which had apparently long been used in the region to describe oscillations in alpine lakes. Seiches can be considered long period or infragravity waves , which are due to subharmonic nonlinear wave interaction with the wind waves , have periods longer than the accompanying wind-generated waves
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Advection
In physics , engineering , and earth sciences , ADVECTION is the transport of a substance by bulk motion. The properties of that substance are carried with it. Generally the majority of the advected substance is a fluid. The properties that are carried with the advected substance are conserved properties such as energy . An example of advection is the transport of pollutants or silt in a river by bulk water flow downstream. Another commonly advected quantity is energy or enthalpy . Here the fluid may be any material that contains thermal energy, such as water or air . In general, any substance or conserved, extensive quantity can be advected by a fluid that can hold or contain the quantity or substance. During advection, a fluid transports some conserved quantity or material via bulk motion
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Diffuse
Diffusion
Diffusion
is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential). This is also referred to as the movement of a substance down a concentration gradient . A gradient is the change in the value of a quantity (e.g., concentration, pressure , temperature ) with the change in another variable (usually distance ). For example, a change in concentration over a distance is called a concentration gradient, a change in pressure over a distance is called a pressure gradient , and a change in temperature over a distance is a called a temperature gradient . The word DIFFUSION derives from the Latin
Latin
word, diffundere, which means "to spread out" (a substance that “spreads out” is moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration)
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Sediment
SEDIMENT is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion , and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. For example, sand and silt can be carried in suspension in river water and on reaching the sea be deposited by sedimentation and if buried this may eventually become sandstone and siltstone , ( sedimentary rocks ). Sediments are most often transported by water (fluvial processes ), but also wind (aeolian processes ) and glaciers . Beach sands and river channel deposits are examples of fluvial transport and deposition , though sediment also often settles out of slow-moving or standing water in lakes and oceans. Desert sand dunes and loess are examples of aeolian transport and deposition. Glacial
Glacial
moraine deposits and till are ice-transported sediments
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Landform
A LANDFORM is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth
Earth
or other planetary body . Landforms together make up a given terrain , and their arrangement in the landscape is known as topography . Typical landforms include hills , mountains , plateaus , canyons , valleys , as well as shoreline features such as bays , peninsulas , and seas , including submerged features such as mid-ocean ridges , volcanoes , and the great ocean basins . CONTENTS * 1 Physical characteristics * 2 Hierarchy of classes * 3 Recent developments * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICSLandforms are categorized by characteristic physical attributes such as elevation, slope, orientation, stratification , rock exposure, and soil type
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River Delta
A RIVER DELTA is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or standing water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean , sea , estuary , lake , reservoir , or (more rarely) another river that cannot transport away the supplied sediment. The size and shape of a delta is controlled by the balance between watershed processes that supply sediment and receiving basin processes that redistribute, sequester, and export that sediment. The size, geometry, and location of the receiving basin also plays an important role in delta evolution. River deltas are important in human civilization, as they are major agricultural production centers and population centers. They can provide coastline defense and can impact drinking water supply. They are also ecologically important, with different species assemblages depending on their landscape position
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Sand Bar
In oceanography , geomorphology , and earth sciences , a SHOAL is a natural submerged ridge, bank, or bar that consists of, or is covered by, sand or other unconsolidated material, and rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface. Often it refers to those submerged ridges, banks, or bars that rise near enough to the surface of a body of water as to constitute a danger to navigation. Shoals are also known as SANDBANKS, SANDBARS, or GRAVELBARS. Two or more shoals that are either separated by shared troughs or interconnected by past and or present sedimentary and hydrographic processes are referred to as a SHOAL COMPLEX. The term shoal is also used in a number of ways that can be either similar or quite different from how it is used in the geologic, geomorphic, and oceanographic literature
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Spit (landform)
A SPIT or SANDSPIT is a deposition bar or beach landform off coasts or lake shores. It develops in places where re-entrance occurs, such as at a cove's headlands , by the process of longshore drift by longshore currents. The drift occurs due to waves meeting the beach at an oblique angle, moving sediment down the beach in a zigzag pattern. This is complemented by longshore currents, which further transport sediment through the water alongside the beach. These currents are caused by the same waves that cause the drift. CONTENTS * 1 Hydrology and geology * 2 Notable spits around the world * 3 Human settlement patterns * 4 See also * 5 References HYDROLOGY AND GEOLOGYWhere the direction of the shore inland re-enters, or changes direction, for example at a headland , the longshore current spreads out or dissipates. No longer able to carry the full load, much of the sediment is dropped. This is called deposition
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River Plym
The RIVER PLYM is a river in Devon
Devon
, England. It runs from Dartmoor in the centre of the county southwest to meet the River
River
Meavy , then south towards Plymouth Sound
Plymouth Sound
. The river is popular with canoeists and the Plym Valley Railway runs alongside a section of the river. CONTENTS * 1 Course * 2 Nomenclature * 3 History * 4 Leisure * 5 See also * 6 References COURSEThe river's source is around 450 metres (1,480 ft) above sea level on Dartmoor , in an upland marshy area called Plym Head . From the upper reaches , which contain antiquities and mining remains, the river flows roughly southwest past clay workings at Shaugh Prior to Dewerstone , where it meets the River
River
Meavy . The course then changes to run southwards, between Plymouth
Plymouth
and Plympton
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River Sid
The RIVER SID is a minor river in East Devon . It flows for 10.5 kilometres southwards from a source in Crowpits Covert ( OSGB36 Grid reference SY138963) at a height of 206 metres above sea level. The source is at the head of a goyle or small ravine. The underlying geology is impermeable silty mudstones and sandstones of the Triassic
Triassic
Keuper marl , overlain with permeable Greensand and clay-with-flints. The junction between the Greensand and Keuper Marl forms a spring line. The river flows through Sidbury and Sidford to Sidmouth and is fed by springs flowing from East Hill and water from the Roncombe Stream, the Snod Brook and the Woolbrook. In Sidmouth the river outflows at the Ham through a shingle bar. The Sid Vale Association , the first Civic Society in Britain (founded in 1846) is based in the Sid Vale
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