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Rifle-musket
A rifled musket or rifle musket is a type of firearm made in the mid-19th century. Originally the term referred only to muskets that had been produced as a smoothbore weapon and later had their barrels replaced with rifled barrels. The term later included rifles that directly replaced, and were of the same design overall as, a particular model of smoothbore musket.Contents1 History and development 2 Characteristics of rifled muskets 3 Use in battle 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory and development[edit] In the early 19th century, there were rifles, and there were muskets. Muskets were smoothbore muzzle-loading weapons, firing round lead balls or buck and ball ammunition, that were also designed to accept a bayonet
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Springfield Model 1861
The Springfield Model 1861
Springfield Model 1861
was a Minié-type rifled musket shoulder-arm used by the United States Army
United States Army
and Marine Corps during the American Civil War. Commonly referred to as the "Springfield" (after its original place of production, Springfield, Massachusetts),[1] it was the most widely used U.S. Army weapon during the Civil War, favored for its range, accuracy, and reliability.Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 Modern usage 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksOverview[edit] The barrel was forty inches (102 cm) long, firing a .58 caliber Minié ball, and the total weight was approximately nine pounds (4,9 kg)
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Percussion Cap
The percussion cap, introduced circa 1820, was the crucial invention that enabled muzzleloading firearms to fire reliably in any weather.[1] This gave rise to the caplock or percussionlock system. Before this development, firearms used flintlock ignition systems that produced flint-on-steel sparks to ignite a pan of priming powder and thereby fire the gun's main powder charge (the flintlock mechanism replaced older ignition systems such as the matchlock and wheellock). Flintlocks were prone to misfire in wet weather, and many flintlock firearms were later converted to the more reliable percussion system.Contents1 Description 2 History2.1 Firing devices and fuze mechanisms3 See also 4 ReferencesDescription[edit] The percussion cap is a small cylinder of copper or brass with one closed end. Inside the closed end is a small amount of a shock-sensitive explosive material such as fulminate of mercury
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Breech-loading Weapon
A breech-loading gun is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel. Modern mass production firearms are breech-loading (though mortars are generally muzzle-loaded), except those which are intended specifically by design to be muzzle-loaders, in order to be legal for certain types of hunting. Early firearms, on the other hand, were almost entirely muzzle-loading. The main advantage of breech-loading is a reduction in reloading time – it is much quicker to load the projectile and the charge into the breech of a gun or cannon than to try to force them down a long tube, especially when the bullet fit is tight and the tube has spiral ridges from rifling
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Springfield Model 1868
The Springfield Model 1868
Springfield Model 1868
was one of several model "trapdoor Springfields", which used the trapdoor breechblock design developed by Erskine S. Allin. History and Design[edit] Originally, the trapdoor Springfields were created to convert Model 1863 Springfield rifled muskets to breech-loading rifles at a relatively low cost. This conversion consisted of replacing the percussion lock with the breech-loading trapdoor mechanism, and relining the barrels to convert them from .58 to .50 caliber. This proved problematic, because in the field, the lining tended to separate from the barrel. To correct this problem, the Model 1868 used a new barrel instead of relining the original older barrel. The new barrel was slightly shorter, 32.5 inches, compared to the 36.5-inch barrel used on the Model 1866. The shorter barrel was affixed using only two barrel bands, instead of the three used on the Model 1866
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Springfield Model 1855
The Springfield Model 1855
Springfield Model 1855
was a rifled musket widely used in the American Civil War. It exploited the advantages of the new conical Minié ball, which could be deadly at over 1,000 yards. About 60,000 of these rifles were made, and it was a standard infantry weapon for Union and Confederates alike, until the Model 1861 supplanted it, obviating the use of the insufficiently waterproof Maynard tape primer.Contents1 Origins 2 First Use 3 Variants 4 See also 5 ReferencesOrigins[edit] The Model 1855 Springfield was a rifled musket used in the mid 19th century. It was manufactured by the Springfield Armory
Springfield Armory
in Massachusetts and at the Harper's Ferry in Virginia. Earlier muskets had mostly been smoothbore flintlocks. In the 1840s, the unreliable flintlocks had been replaced by much more reliable and weather resistant percussion cap systems
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Mounted Infantry
Mounted infantry
Mounted infantry
were infantry who rode horses instead of marching. The original dragoons were essentially mounted infantry. According to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, "Mounted rifles are half cavalry, mounted infantry merely specially mobile infantry." Today, with motor vehicles having replaced horses for military transport, the motorized infantry are in some respects successors to mounted infantry.Contents1 Pre-gunpowder 2 Dragoons 3 19th century 4 20th century transition 5 Falkland Islands 6 See also 7 References and notes 8 External linksPre-gunpowder[edit] The origins of mounted infantry go back to at least the beginnings of organised warfare. With the weight of ancient bronze armour national champions would travel to battle on chariots before dismounting to fight. With the evolution of hoplite warfare, some hoplites would travel to battle on horseback, before again dismounting to take their place in the phalanx
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Rifleman
A rifleman is an infantry soldier armed with a rifled long gun. Although the rifleman role had its origin with 16th century hand cannoneers and 17th century musketeers, the term originated in the 18th century with the introduction of the rifled musket. By the mid-19th century, entire regiments of riflemen were formed and became the mainstay of all standard infantry, and rifleman became a generic term for any common infantryman.Contents1 History 2 Rank 3 Modern tactics3.1 Modern Rifleman4 Rifleman
Rifleman
in different countries4.1 Australia 4.2 India 4.3 Israel 4.4 Rhodesia 4.5 United Kingdom 4.6 United States5 See also 6 References and notesHistory[edit] Units of musketeers were originally developed to support units of pikemen. As firearms became more effective and widely used, the composition of these pike-and-musket units changed, with pikemen eventually becoming support units to the musketeers, particularly against cavalry
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Percussion Lock
The caplock mechanism or percussion lock was the successor of the flintlock mechanism in firearm technology, and used a percussion cap struck by the hammer to set off the main charge, rather than using a piece of flint to strike a steel frizzen. The rudimentary percussion system was developed by Rev. Alexander John Forsyth as a solution to the problem that birds would startle when smoke puffed from the powder pan of his flintlock shotgun, giving them sufficient warning to escape the shot.[1] His invention of a fulminate-primed firing mechanism deprived the birds of their early warning system, both by avoiding the initial puff of smoke from the flintlock powder pan, as well as shortening the interval between the trigger pull and the shot leaving the muzzle. Forsyth patented his ignition system in 1807. However, it was not until after Forsyth's patents expired that the conventional percussion cap system was developed. The caplock offered many improvements over the flintlock
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Maynard Tape Primer
The Maynard tape primer
Maynard tape primer
was a system designed by Edward Maynard
Edward Maynard
to allow for more rapid reloading of muskets.Maynard rifle, tape-primerContents1 Invention 2 Initial reception 3 Performance in the field 4 ReferencesInvention[edit] Muskets in the early 19th century were flintlocks, which had a high rate of misfire and performed poorly in damp and humid weather. In 1807 the first percussion ignition system was patented by Alexander Forsyth based on research on fulminates conducted by Edward Charles Howard, but practical percussion lock systems did not become available until the 1820s, after Alexander John Forsyth's patent had expired. Percussion cap systems relied on small copper caps that were filled with mercury fulminate. While they greatly improved the reliability of muskets and their performance in damp weather, the slow rate of fire of muskets was still an issue. Dr
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Paper Cartridge
This article addresses older paper small-arms cartridges, for modern metallic small arms cartridges see Cartridge (firearms). A paper cartridge is one of various types of small arms ammunition used before the advent of the metallic cartridge. These cartridges consisted of a paper cylinder or cone containing the bullet, gunpowder, and, in some cases, a primer or a lubricating and anti-fouling agent
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Cartridge (firearms)
A cartridge is a type of firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) in a metallic, paper or plastic cartridge that fits the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and shooting.[1] Although in popular usage the term "bullet" is often used to refer to a complete cartridge, it is correctly used only to refer to the projectile. Cartridges can be categorized by the type of their primers — a small charge of an impact- or electric-sensitive chemical mixture that is located at the center of the case head (centerfire), inside the rim of the case base (rimfire and the now obsolete cupfire), in a sideway projection that is shaped like pin (pinfire, now obsolete) or a lip (lipfire, now obsolete), or in a small nipple-like bulge at the case base (teat-fire, now obsolete). Military and commercial producers continue t
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Ramrod
A ramrod is a metal or wooden device used with early firearms to push the projectile up against the propellant (mainly gunpowder). It is also commonly referred to as a "scouring stick". The ramrod was used with muzzle-loading weapons such as muskets and cannons, and was usually held in a notch underneath the barrel. Bullets that did not fit snugly in the barrel were often secured in place by a wad of paper, but either way, ramming was necessary to place the bullet securely at the rear of the barrel
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Cap Gun
A cap gun, cap pistol, or cap rifle is a toy gun that creates a loud sound simulating a gunshot and a puff of smoke when a small percussion cap is exploded. Cap guns were originally made of cast iron, but after World War II
World War II
were made of zinc alloy, and most newer models are made of plastic. Cap guns get their name from the small discs of shock-sensitive explosive compounds (roughly 1.4 to 1.6 millimetres (0.055 to 0.063 in) in diameter) that provide the noise and smoke, effectively the same as the Maynard tape primer
Maynard tape primer
and percussion caps used in real firearms of the mid to late 1800s but usually smaller and made from cheap plastic or paper. Some are arranged in plastic rings of eight or twelve. There are also single caps, roll caps (of 50 to 500), disk caps, and cap strips all of which are actually extremely small versions of percussion fireworks
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Minié Rifle
The Minié rifle
Minié rifle
was an important infantry rifle of the mid-19th century. A version was adopted in 1849 following the invention of the Minié ball
Minié ball
in 1847 by the French Army
French Army
captain Claude-Étienne Minié of the Chasseurs
Chasseurs
d' Orléans
Orléans
and Henri-Gustave Delvigne. The bullet was designed to allow rapid muzzle loading of rifles, and was an innovation that brought about the widespread use of the rifle as the main battlefield weapon for individual soldiers. The French adopted it following difficulties encountered by the French army in Northern Africa, where their muskets were outranged by long-barreled weapons which were handcrafted by their Algerian opponents
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American Civil War
Union victoryDissolution of the Confederate States U.S. territorial integrity preserved Slavery abolished Beginning of the Reconstruction EraBelligerents United States  Confederate StatesCommanders and leaders Abraham Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman David Farragut George B. McClellan Henry Halleck George Meade and others Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee  J. E. Johnston  G. T. Beauregard  A. S
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