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Rifle
Evolution of the modern rifle: Top: Baker rifle, an early 19th-century flintlock rifle. Second: Pattern 1853 Enfield, a mid 19th-century caplock rifled musket. Third: Dreyse needle gun, the first standard issue military breechloading rifle. Fourth: Henry rifle, the first successful lever action repeating rifle. Fifth: Lebel Model 1886 rifle, a late 19th-century bolt-action rifle and the first to use smokeless powder. Sixth: M1 Garand, an early 20th-century semi-automatic rifle and the first to be adopted as standard military issue. Seventh: АК-47, a mid 20th-century gas-operated, magazine-fed automatic rifle. Eighth: FAMAS, a late 20th-century selective fire, bullpup assault rifle.A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls
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Gas-operated Reloading
Gas-operation is a system of operation used to provide energy to operate autoloading firearms. In gas operation, a portion of high-pressure gas from the cartridge being fired is used to power a mechanism to extract the spent case and insert a new cartridge into the chamber. Energy from the gas is harnessed through either a port in the barrel or a trap at the muzzle. This high-pressure gas impinges on a surface such as a piston head to provide motion for unlocking of the action, extraction of the spent case, ejection, cocking of the hammer or striker, chambering of a fresh cartridge, and locking of the action
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War
War
War
is a state of armed conflict between states or societies. It is generally characterized by extreme aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. An absence of war is usually called "peace". Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general.[1] Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties. While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature,[2] others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances.[3] The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is World War
War
II, from 1939 to 1945, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests[4] at up to 60 million
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Deflagration
Deflagration
Deflagration
(Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it. Most "fires" found in daily life, from flames to explosions, are deflagrations. Deflagration
Deflagration
is different from detonation, which propagates supersonically through shock waves. This means that when a substance detonates, it decomposes extremely quickly instead of deflagration. Black powder is an example of a substance that deflagrates when it is ignited.Contents1 Applications 2 Oil/wax fire and water 3 Flame
Flame
physics 4 Damaging events 5 See also 6 ReferencesApplications[edit] In engineering applications, deflagrations are easier to control than detonations
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Propellant
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object. Common propellants are energetic materials and consist of a fuel like gasoline, jet fuel, rocket fuel, and an oxidizer. Propellants are burned or otherwise decomposed to produce the propellant gas. Other propellants are simply liquids that can readily be vaporized. In rockets and aircraft, propellants are used to produce a gas that can be directed through a nozzle, thereby producing thrust. In rockets, rocket propellant produces an exhaust, and the exhausted material is usually expelled under pressure through a nozzle. The pressure may be from a compressed gas, or a gas produced by a chemical reaction. The exhaust material may be a gas, liquid, plasma, or, before the chemical reaction, a solid, liquid, or gel
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Cutting Tool
In the context of machining, a cutting tool or cutter is any tool that is used to remove material from the work piece by means of shear deformation. Cutting
Cutting
may be accomplished by single-point or multipoint tools. Single-point tools are used in turning, shaping, planing and similar operations, and remove material by means of one cutting edge. Milling and drilling tools are often multipoint tools. Grinding tools are also multipoint tools. Each grain of abrasive functions as a microscopic single-point cutting edge (although of high negative rake angle), and shears a tiny chip. Cutting
Cutting
tool materials must be harder than the material which is to be cut, and the tool must be able to withstand the heat generated in the metal-cutting process. Also, the tool must have a specific geometry, with clearance angles designed so that the cutting edge can contact the workpiece without the rest of the tool dragging on the workpiece surface
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Black Powder
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate (saltpeter)
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Nitrocellulose
Nitrocellulose
Nitrocellulose
(also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. When used as a propellant or low-order explosive, it was originally known as guncotton. Partially nitrated cellulose has found uses as a plastic film and in inks and wood coatings.[2] In 1862 the first man-made plastic, nitrocellulose (branded Parkesine), was created by Alexander Parkes from cellulose treated with nitric acid and a solvent. In 1868, American inventor John Wesley Hyatt developed a plastic material he named Celluloid, improving on Parkes' invention by plasticizing the nitrocellulose with camphor so that it could be processed into finished form and used as a photographic film
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Compressed Air
Compressed air
Compressed air
is air kept under a pressure that is greater than atmospheric pressure. Compressed air
Compressed air
is an important medium for transfer of energy in industrial processes. Compressed air
Compressed air
is used for power tools such as air hammers, drills, wrenches and others. Compressed air
Compressed air
is used to atomize paint, to operate air cylinders for automation, and can also be used to propel vehicles. Brakes applied by compressed air made large railway trains safer and more efficient to operate. Compressed air
Compressed air
brakes are also found on large highway vehicles. Compressed air
Compressed air
is used as a breathing gas by underwater divers
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Pest Control
Pest control
Pest control
is the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, a member of the animal kingdom that impacts adversely on human activities. The human response depends on the importance of the damage done, and will range from tolerance, through deterrence and management, to attempts to completely eradicate the pest. Pest control measures may be performed as part of an integrated pest management strategy. In agriculture, pests are kept at bay by cultural, chemical and biological means. Ploughing
Ploughing
and cultivation of the soil before sowing reduces the pest burden and there is a modern trend to limit the use of pesticides as far as possible. This can be achieved by monitoring the crop, only applying insecticides when necessary, and by growing varieties and crops which are resistant to pests
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American Football
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada[citation needed] and also known as gridiron,[nb 1] is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, which is the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, which is the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, and otherwise they turn over the football to the defense; if the offense succeeds in advancing ten yards or more, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal
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Machining
Machining
Machining
is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process. The processes that have this common theme, controlled material removal, are today collectively known as subtractive manufacturing,[1] in distinction from processes of controlled material addition, which are known as additive manufacturing. Exactly what the "controlled" part of the definition implies can vary, but it almost always implies the use of machine tools (in addition to just power tools and hand tools). Machining
Machining
is a part of the manufacture of many metal products, but it can also be used on materials such as wood, plastic, ceramic, and composites.[2] A person who specializes in machining is called a machinist. A room, building, or company where machining is done is called a machine shop
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Rugby Football
Rugby football
Rugby football
usually refers to rugby union or sometimes rugby league, which are both team sports, rugby union originating at Rugby School in Rugby, Warwickshire, and rugby league originating in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
after splitting and forming the Northern Union in 1896 (what is now known as rugby league). The first rugby match in North America
North America
was played between McGill University
McGill University
and Harvard University. The champion of the match between both McGill and Harvard received the Covo cup. Rugby football
Rugby football
(both league and union) is one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century, along with association football.[1]. Although rugby league initially used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports
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Round Shot
A round shot (or solid shot, or a cannonball, or simply ball) is a solid projectile without explosive charge, fired from a cannon. As the name implies, a round shot is spherical; its diameter is slightly less than the bore of the gun from which it is fired. The cast iron cannonball was introduced by French artillery engineers after 1450 where it had the capacity to reduce traditional English castle wall fortifications to rubble.[1] French armories would cast a tubular cannon body in a single piece and cannonballs took the shape of a sphere initially made from stone material. Advances in gunpowder manufacturing soon led the replacement of stone cannonballs with cast iron ones.[2] Round shot
Round shot
was made in early times from dressed stone, referred to as gunstone (Middle English gunneston, from gonne, gunne gun + stoon, ston stone), but by the 17th century, from iron
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Shooting At The Summer Olympics
Shooting sports
Shooting sports
have been included at every Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
since the birth of the modern Olympic movement at the 1896 Summer Olympics, except at the 1904 and 1928 games.Contents1 Events1.1 Men's 1.2 Women's 1.3 Mixed2 Nations 3 Medal table 4 See also 5 ReferencesEvents[edit] Men's[edit] Men's Shooting was one of the nine events at the first modern Olympic Games in Athens, in 1896. In the Paris Games in 1900, live pigeons were used as moving targets. After the 1900 games, the pigeons were replaced with clay targets. In 1907, the International Shooting Sport Federation came into existence and brought some standardizations to the sport. Shooting events were held in 1908, 1912, 1920 and 1924. When shooting was reintroduced in 1932, it consisted of only two events. From this, the number of events have increased steadily until reaching the 2000–2004 maximum of seventeen events
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Small Arm
In international arms control, small arms are man-portable firearms that shoot kinetic projectiles, including handguns (revolvers and pistols) and individual-operated long guns such as rifles and carbines, shotguns, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, and light machine guns. Together with light weapons, which either are team-operated (e.g
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