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Rickets
Rickets
Rickets
is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children.[1] Symptoms include bowed legs, stunted growth, bone pain, large forehead, and trouble sleeping.[1][2] Complications may include bone fractures, muscle spasms, an abnormally curved spine, or intellectual disability.[1][2] The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency.[1] This can result from eating a diet without enough vitamin D, dark skin, too little sun exposure, exclusive breastfeeding without vitamin D supplementation, celiac disease, and certain genetic conditions.[1][2] Other factors may include not enough calcium or phosphorus.[4][3] The underlying mechanism in
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Radiograph
Radiography
Radiography
is an imaging technique using X-rays
X-rays
to view the internal form of an object. To create the image, a beam of X-rays, a form of electromagnetic radiation, are produced by an X-ray
X-ray
generator and are projected toward the object. A certain amount of X-ray
X-ray
is absorbed by the object, dependent on its density and structural composition. The X-rays
X-rays
that pass through the object are captured behind the object by a detector (either photographic film or a digital detector). The generation of flat two dimensional images by this technique is called projectional radiography
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1st Century
The 1st century
1st century
was the century that lasted from AD 1
AD 1
to AD 100 according to the Julian calendar. It is often written as the 1st century AD[1] or 1st century
1st century
CE to distinguish it from the 1st century BC (or BCE) which preceded it
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Lowe Syndrome
Oculocerebrorenal syndrome
Oculocerebrorenal syndrome
(also called Lowe syndrome) is a rare X-linked
X-linked
recessive disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, hypotonia, intellectual disability, proximal tubular acidosis, aminoaciduria, and low-molecular-weight proteinuria
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Bones
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton. Bones support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility. Bones come in a variety of shapes and sizes and have a complex internal and external structure. They are lightweight yet strong and hard, and serve multiple functions. Bone
Bone
tissue (osseous tissue) is a hard tissue, a type of dense connective tissue. It has a honeycomb-like matrix internally, which helps to give the bone rigidity. Bone
Bone
tissue is made up of different types of bone cells. Osteoblasts and osteocytes are involved in the formation and mineralization of bone; osteoclasts are involved in the resorption of bone tissue. Modified (flattened) osteoblasts become the lining cells that form a protective layer on the bone surface
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Phosphorus
Phosphorus
Phosphorus
is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. As an element, phosphorus exists in two major forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus, but because it is highly reactive, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. With a concentration of 0.099%, phosphorus is the most abundant pnictogen in the Earth's crust. Other than a few exceptions, minerals containing phosphorus are in the maximally oxidized state as inorganic phosphate rocks. The first form of elemental phosphorus that was produced (white phosphorus, in 1669) emits a faint glow when exposed to oxygen – hence the name, taken from Greek mythology, Φωσφόρος meaning "light-bearer" (Latin Lucifer), referring to the "Morning Star", the planet Venus
Venus
(or Mercury)
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Calcification
Calcification
Calcification
is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue. It normally occurs in the formation of bone, but calcium can be deposited abnormally in soft tissue,[1][2] causing it to harden. Calcifications may be classified on whether there is mineral balance or not, and the location of the calcification.[3] Calcification
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Growth Plate
The epiphyseal plate (or epiphysial plate, physis, or growth plate) is a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone. It is the part of a long bone where new bone growth takes place; that is, the whole bone is alive, with maintenance remodeling throughout its existing bone tissue, but the growth plate is the place where the long bone grows longer (adds length). The plate is found in children and adolescents; in adults, who have stopped growing, the plate is replaced by an epiphyseal line. This replacement is known as epiphyseal closure.Contents1 Structure1.1 Development 1.2 Histology2 Clinical significance 3 Other animals 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksStructure[edit] Development[edit] Endochondral ossification
Endochondral ossification
is responsible for the initial bone development from cartilage in utero and infants and the longitudinal growth of long bones in the epiphyseal plate
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Minority Group
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major of positions of social power in a society. It may be defined by law. The differentiation can be based on one or more observable human characteristics, including: ethnicity, race, religion, disability, gender, wealth, health or sexual orientation. Usage of the term is applied to various situations and civilizations within history despite its popular misassociation with a numerical, statistical minority.[1] In the social sciences, the term "minority" is sometimes used to describe social power relations between dominant and subordinate groups, rather than simply indicating demographic variation within a population.[2] Furthermore, from an intersectional sociological perspective, any given individual may simultaneously occupy both a majority identity and a minority identity, depending on the intersection of different social categories (e.g
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20th Century
The 20th century
20th century
was a century that began on January 1, 1901[1] and ended on December 31, 2000.[2] It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the 1900s which began on January 1, 1900
1900
and ended on December 31, 1999. The 20th century
20th century
was dominated by a chain of events that heralded significant changes in world history as to redefine the era: World War I and World War II, nuclear power and space exploration, nationalism and decolonization, the Cold War
Cold War
and post- Cold War
Cold War
conflicts; intergovernmental organizations and cultural homogenization through developments in emerging transportation and communications technology; poverty reduction and world population growth, awareness of environmental degradation, ecological extinction;[3][4] and the birth of the Digital Revolution
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Radiographs
Radiography
Radiography
is an imaging technique using X-rays
X-rays
to view the internal form of an object. To create the image, a beam of X-rays, a form of electromagnetic radiation, are produced by an X-ray
X-ray
generator and are projected toward the object. A certain amount of X-ray
X-ray
is absorbed by the object, dependent on its density and structural composition. The X-rays
X-rays
that pass through the object are captured behind the object by a detector (either photographic film or a digital detector). The generation of flat two dimensional images by this technique is called projectional radiography
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Bone
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton. Bones support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility. Bones come in a variety of shapes and sizes and have a complex internal and external structure. They are lightweight yet strong and hard, and serve multiple functions. Bone
Bone
tissue (osseous tissue) is a hard tissue, a type of dense connective tissue. It has a honeycomb-like matrix internally, which helps to give the bone rigidity. Bone
Bone
tissue is made up of different types of bone cells. Osteoblasts and osteocytes are involved in the formation and mineralization of bone; osteoclasts are involved in the resorption of bone tissue. Modified (flattened) osteoblasts become the lining cells that form a protective layer on the bone surface
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Fracture
A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress. The fracture of a solid usually occurs due to the development of certain displacement discontinuity surfaces within the solid. If a displacement develops perpendicular to the surface of displacement, it is called a normal tensile crack or simply a crack; if a displacement develops tangentially to the surface of displacement, it is called a shear crack, slip band, or dislocation.[1] Brittle fractures occur with no apparent deformation before fracture; ductile fractures occur when visible deformation does occur before separation. Fracture
Fracture
strength or breaking strength is the stress when a specimen fails or fractures
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Greenstick Fracture
A greenstick fracture is a fracture in a young, soft bone in which the bone bends and breaks. Greenstick fractures usually occur most often during infancy and childhood when bones are soft. The name is by analogy with green (i.e., fresh) wood which similarly breaks on the outside when bent
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Kyphoscoliosis
Kyphoscoliosis
Kyphoscoliosis
describes an abnormal curvature of the spine in both a coronal and sagittal plane. It is a combination of kyphosis and scoliosis. This musculoskeletal disorder often leads to other issues in patients, such as under-ventilation of lungs, pulmonary hypertension, difficulty in performing day-to-day activities, psychological issues emanating from anxiety about acceptance among peers, especially in young patients
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