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Revolt Of The Comuneros
The Revolt of the Comuneros
Revolt of the Comuneros
(Spanish: Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla, "War of the Communities of Castile") was an uprising by citizens of Castile against the rule of Charles V and his administration between 1520 and 1521. At its height, the rebels controlled the heart of Castile, ruling the cities of Valladolid, Tordesillas, and Toledo. The revolt occurred in the wake of political instability in the Crown of Castile after the death of Queen Isabella I in 1504. Queen Joanna I the Mad, Isabella's daughter, inherited the throne with her Burgundian husband King Philip I. However, Philip died two years into their reign, and their son Charles was only six years old. Due to his youth and Joanna's mental instability, Castile was ruled by the nobles and her father, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, as a regency. After Ferdinand's death in 1516, the sixteen-year-old Charles was proclaimed king of both Castile and Aragon
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Comunero (other)
Comunero is a Spanish term with several meanings; literally, it means "member of a community", but it has other connotations as well, depending on context
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Kingdom Of Naples
The Kingdom of Naples
Naples
(Latin: Regnum Neapolitanum; Italian: Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
south of the Papal States
Papal States
between 1282 and 1816. It was created as a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers
Sicilian Vespers
(1282–1302), when the island of Sicily revolted and was conquered by the Crown of Aragon, becoming a separate Kingdom of Sicily.[1] Naples
Naples
continued to be officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily, the name of the formerly unified kingdom. For much of its existence, the realm was contested between French and Spanish dynasties
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Adrian Of Utrecht
Pope Adrian VI (Latin: Hadrianus VI), born Adriaan Florensz Boeyens[1] (2 March 1459 – 14 September 1523), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 January 1522 until his death on 14 September 1523. The only Dutchman so far to become pope, he was the last non-Italian pope until John Paul II, 455 years later. Born in the Episcopal principality of Utrecht, Adrian studied at the University of Leuven in the Low Countries, where he rose to the position of professor of theology, also serving as rector (the equivalent of vice-chancellor). In 1507, he became the tutor of the future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who later trusted him as both his emissary and his regent. In 1516, Adrian became bishop of Tortosa, Spain, and was soon appointed Grand Inquisitor of the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile
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Manorialism
Manorialism
Manorialism
was an essential element of feudal society.[1] It was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the Roman villa system of the Late Roman Empire,[2] and was widely practiced in medieval western and parts of central Europe
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Battle Of Villalar
8,400 men6,000 infantry 2,400 cavalry7,400 men7,000 infantry 400 cavalryCasualties and losses20–30 dead 500–1000 deadThe Battle of Villalar
Battle of Villalar
was a battle in the Revolt of the Comuneros fought on April 23, 1521 near the town of Villalar in Valladolid province, Spain. The royalist supporters of King Charles I won a crushing victory over the comuneros rebels. Three of the most important rebel leaders were captured, Juan de Padilla, Juan Bravo, and Francisco Maldonado. They were executed the next day, effectively ending armed resistance to Charles I.Contents1 Background1.1 Maneuvers in March and April 15212 Battle 3 Aftermath 4 Legacy 5 Notes 6 ReferencesBackground[edit] Maneuvers in March and April 1521[edit] In late March 1521, the royalist side moved to combine their armies and threaten Torrelobatón, a rebel stronghold
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Spanish Transition To Democracy
The Spanish transition to democracy
Spanish transition to democracy
(Spanish: Transición española a la democracia), known in Spain
Spain
as the Transition (Spanish: La Transición), or the Spanish transition (Spanish: Transición española) is a period of modern Spanish history, that started on 20 November 1975, the date of death of Francisco Franco, who had established a military dictatorship after the victory of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. However, historians disagree on the exact date the transition completed:[1] some say it ended after the 1977 general election; while others place it later, when the 1978 Constitution was approved. Others suggest it ended with the failure of the 1981 coup d'êtat attempt
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Autonomous Communities Of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community (Spanish: comunidad autónoma, Basque: autonomia erkidegoa, Catalan: comunitat autònoma, Galician: comunidade autónoma)[a] is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.[1][2][3] Spain
Spain
is not a federation, but a highly decentralized[4][5] unitary state.[1] While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the
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Castile And León
Castile and León
Castile and León
(/kæˈstiːl ... liˈɒn/; Spanish: Castilla y León [kasˈtiʎa i leˈon] ( listen); Leonese: Castiella y Llión [kasˈtjeʎa i ʎiˈoŋ]; Galician: Castela e León [kasˈtɛla e leˈoŋ], Portuguese: Castela e Leão) is an autonomous community in north-western Spain. It was constituted in 1983, although it existed for the first time during the First Spanish Republic
First Spanish Republic
in the 19th century. León first appeared as a Kingdom in 910, whilst the Kingdom of Castile gained an independent identity in 1065 and was intermittently held in personal union with León before merging with it permanently in 1230
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Castile And León Day
Castile and León
Castile and León
Day (Spanish: Día de Castilla y León) is a holiday celebrated on April 23 in the autonomous community of Castile and León, a subdivision of Spain. The date is the anniversary of the Battle of Villalar, in which Castilian rebels called Comuneros were dealt a crushing defeat by the royalist forces of King Charles I in the Revolt of the Comuneros
Revolt of the Comuneros
on April 23, 1521. Commemoration of the Battle of Villalar
Battle of Villalar
was closely associated with liberal politics in Spain
Spain
from the late 18th century until the 1970s, as conservatives generally sympathized with the royal government. With the demise of General Franco's government, the day has broadened to a more general celebration of Castilian nationalism
Castilian nationalism
rather than only liberal politics
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Castilian Nationalism
Castilian nationalism, or "Castilianism" (Spanish: Castellanismo), is a political movement that advocates for the national recognition of Castile, and in some cases, its independence. Some Castilian nationalists defend the traditions and values from the rebels of the Castilian War of the Communities, so they call themselves "comuneros"
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Bernard Van Orley
Bernard van Orley
Bernard van Orley
(between 1487 and 1491 – 6 January 1541), also called Barend or Barent van Orley, Bernaert van Orley or Barend van Brussel, was a leading artist in Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, though he was at least as active as a leading designer of Brussels tapestry
Brussels tapestry
and, at the end of his life, stained glass. Although he never visited Italy, he belongs to the group of Italianizing Flemish painters called the Romanists, who were influenced by Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
painting, in his case especially by Raphael.[1] He was born and died in Brussels, and was the court artist of the Habsburg
Habsburg
rulers, and "served as a sort of commissioner of the arts for the Brussels
Brussels
town council"
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Kingdom Of Burgundy
Kingdom of Burgundy
Kingdom of Burgundy
was a name given to various states located in Western Europe
Western Europe
during the Middle Ages. The historical Burgundy correlates with the border area of France, Italy
Italy
and Switzerland
Switzerland
and includes the major modern cities of Geneva
Geneva
and Lyon. As a political entity, Burgundy has existed in a number of forms with different boundaries, notably, when divided in Upper and Lower Burgundy and Provence. Two of these entities — the first around the 6th century, the second around the 11th century — have been called the Kingdom of Burgundy
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Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1493 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky. He was the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Eleanor of Portugal. He ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of his father's reign, from c. 1483 to 1493. Maximilian expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
through war and his marriage in 1477 to Mary of Burgundy, the heiress to the Duchy of Burgundy, though he also lost the Austrian territories in today's Switzerland to the Swiss Confederacy
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Castilian Language
The Spanish language
Spanish language
(/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen);  Español (help·info)), also called the Castilian language[4] (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen),  castellano (help·info)), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin
Latin
America and Spain. It is usually considered the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.[5][6][7][8][9] Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Catholic Monarchs
The Catholic Monarchs[a][b] is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile[1] and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. They were both from the House of Trastámara
House of Trastámara
and were second cousins, being both descended from John I of Castile; on marriage they were given a papal dispensation to deal with consanguinity by Sixtus IV. They married on October 19, 1469, in the city of Valladolid; Isabella was eighteen years old and Ferdinand a year younger. It is generally accepted by most scholars (John Elliott being an English-speaking example) that the unification of Spain
Spain
can essentially be traced back to the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
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