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Reverse Osmosis
REVERSE OSMOSIS (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions , molecules , and larger particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure , a colligative property , that is driven by chemical potential differences of the solvent, a thermodynamic parameter. Reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis
can remove many types of dissolved and suspended species from water, including bacteria, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water . The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side
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Water Potential
WATER POTENTIAL is the potential energy of water per unit volume relative to pure water in reference conditions. Water
Water
potential quantifies the tendency of water to move from one area to another due to osmosis , gravity , mechanical pressure , or matrix effects such as capillary action (which is caused by surface tension ). The concept of water potential has proved useful in understanding and computing water movement within plants , animals , and soil . Water
Water
potential is typically expressed in potential energy per unit volume and very often is represented by the Greek letter ψ . Water
Water
potential integrates a variety of different potential drivers of water movement, which may operate in the same or different directions. Within complex biological systems, many potential factors may be operating simultaneously
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Salt
TABLE SALT or COMMON SALT is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts ; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite . Salt
Salt
is present in vast quantities in seawater , where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per litre, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt
Salt
is essential for life in general , and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes . The tissues of animals contain larger quantities of salt than do plant tissues. Salt
Salt
is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation
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Effluent
EFFLUENT is an outflowing of water or gas from a natural body of water, or from a manmade structure. Effluent, in engineering, is the stream exiting a chemical reactor . Effluent
Effluent
is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as "wastewater - treated or untreated - that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer, or industrial outfall. Generally refers to wastes discharged into surface waters". The Compact Oxford English Dictionary defines effluent as "liquid waste or sewage discharged into a river or the sea". Effluent
Effluent
in the artificial sense is in general considered to be water pollution , such as the outflow from a sewage treatment facility or the wastewater discharge from industrial facilities. An effluent sump pump , for instance, pumps waste from toilets installed below a main sewage line. Similar to wastewater produced in different establishments, industries, and facilities
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Jean-Antoine Nollet
JEAN-ANTOINE NOLLET (19 November 1700 – 25 April 1770) was a French clergyman and physicist . As a priest, he was also known as ABBé NOLLET. CONTENTS * 1 Scientific work * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Sources * 5 Further reading SCIENTIFIC WORKNollet was particularly interested in the new science of electricity , which he explored with the help of Du Fay and Réaumur . He joined the Royal Society
Royal Society
of London
London
in 1734 and later became the first professor of experimental physics at the University of Paris
University of Paris
. He is reputed to have given the name to the Leyden jar
Leyden jar
after it was invented by Pieter van Musschenbroek
Pieter van Musschenbroek

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Solvent
A SOLVENT (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution . A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid . The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature . Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene ), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene , turpentine ), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone , methyl acetate , ethyl acetate ), in spot removers (e.g. hexane , petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes ) and in perfumes (ethanol ). Water is a solvent for polar molecules and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell. Solvents find various applications in chemical, pharmaceutical , oil, and gas industries, including in chemical syntheses and purification processes
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Solution
In chemistry , a SOLUTION is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent . The mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation . The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is commonly the case. The concentration of a solute in a solution is the mass of that solute expressed as a percentage of the mass of the whole solution
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Chemical Potential
In thermodynamics , CHEMICAL POTENTIAL, also known as PARTIAL MOLAR FREE ENERGY, is a form of potential energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction or phase transition . The chemical potential of a species in a mixture is defined as the rate of change of a free energy of a thermodynamic system with respect to the change in the number of atoms or molecules of the species that are added to the system. Thus, it is the partial derivative of the free energy with respect to the amount of the species, all other species' concentrations in the mixture remaining constant. When both temperature and pressure are held constant, chemical potential is the partial molar Gibbs free energy
Gibbs free energy
. At chemical equilibrium or in phase equilibrium the total sum of chemical potentials is zero, as the free energy is at a minimum
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Reverse Osmosis (group)
REVERSE OSMOSIS is a seventeen-person co-ed a cappella group at the University of Southern California
University of Southern California
founded in January 2001. Reverse Osmosis (RO) routinely performs on the USC campus, but has also toured the East and West Coast, performing in Times Square
Times Square
in NYC and Ghirardelli Square
Ghirardelli Square
on San Francisco Bay . RO is a perennial competitor in the annual International Championship of Collegiate A Cappella competition. In the 2005-2006 ICCA competition, RO took first place overall in the Quarterfinal round held at USC's Bovard Auditorium. They also received special awards that night for best soloist (Jordan Koppelman for "Fix You") best arrangement (David Stal for "Fix You") best vocal percussion (Baraka May for "Fix You") and best choreography (Joey Payo and Melissa Joseph)
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Potable Water
DRINKING WATER, also known as POTABLE WATER or IMPROVED DRINKING WATER, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation , without risk of health problems. Globally, in 2015, 89% of people had access to water suitable for drinking. Nearly 4.2 billion had access to tap water while another 2.4 billion had access to wells or public taps. 1.8 billion people still use an unsafe drinking water source which may be contaminated by feces . This can result in infectious diseases , such as gastroenteritis , cholera , and typhoid , among others. Water
Water
is essential for life. The amount of drinking water required varies. It depends on physical activity, age, health issues, and environmental conditions. It is estimated that on an average, an American drinks about one litre of water a day with 95% of them drinking less than three litres per day. For those who work in a hot climate, up to 16 liters a day may be required
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University Of California At Los Angeles
The UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, California
California
, United States. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California
California
in 1919, making it the second-oldest undergraduate campus of the ten-campus University of California system. It offers 337 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students, and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, the most applicants for any American university
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University Of Florida
The UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA (commonly referred to as FLORIDA or UF) is an American public land-grant , sea-grant , and space-grant research university on a 2,000-acre (8.1 km2) campus in Gainesville, Florida
Gainesville, Florida
. It is a senior member of the State University System of Florida
State University System of Florida
and traces its origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its Gainesville campus since September 1906. The University of Florida
Florida
is one of sixty-two elected member institutions of the Association of American Universities (AAU), the association of preeminent North American research universities, and the only AAU member university in Florida. The University is classified as a Research University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching

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Bar (unit)
The BAR is a metric unit of pressure , but is not approved as part of the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI). It is defined as exactly equal to 100,000 Pa , which is slightly less than the current average atmospheric pressure on Earth at sea level . The bar and the millibar were introduced by the Norwegian meteorologist Vilhelm Bjerknes
Vilhelm Bjerknes
, who was a founder of the modern practice of weather forecasting . Use of the bar is deprecated by professional bodies in some fields. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures
International Bureau of Weights and Measures
(BIPM) lists the bar as one of the "non- SI units
SI units
should have the freedom to use", but declines to include it among the "Non- SI units
SI units
accepted for use with the SI"
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Pound-force Per Square Inch
The POUND PER SQUARE INCH or, more accurately, POUND-FORCE PER SQUARE INCH (symbol: LBF/IN2; abbreviation: PSI) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. It is the pressure resulting from a force of one pound-force applied to an area of one square inch : 1 psi = 1 lbf ( 1 in ) 2 4.4482216 N ( 0.0254 m ) 2 6894.757 N / m 2 {displaystyle 1~{text{psi}}={frac {1~{text{lbf}}}{(1~{text{in}})^{2}}}approx {frac {4.4482216~{text{N}}}{(0.0254~{text{m}})^{2}}}approx 6894.757~{text{N}}/{text{m}}^{2}} Therefore, one pound-force per square inch is approximately 6,894.757 pascals
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Fresh Water
FRESH WATER is the debut album by Australian rock and blues singer Alison McCallum , released in 1972. Rare for an Australian artist at the time, it came in a gatefold sleeve. It was re-issued in 1974 under the title ANY WAY YOU WANT ME in a single sleeve with new artwork
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Drinking Water
DRINKING WATER, also known as POTABLE WATER or IMPROVED DRINKING WATER, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation , without risk of health problems. Globally, in 2015, 91% of people had access to water suitable for drinking. Nearly 4.2 billion had access to tap water while another 2.4 billion had access to wells or public taps. 1.8 billion people still use an unsafe drinking water source which may be contaminated by feces . This can result in infectious diarrhea such as cholera and typhoid among others. Water
Water
is essential for life. The amount of drinking water required is variable. It depends on physical activity, age, health issues, and environmental conditions. It is estimated that the average American drinks about one litre of water a day with 95% drinking less than three litres per day. For those working in a hot climate, up to 16 liters a day may be required
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