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Reverse Osmosis
Reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis
(RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property, that is driven by chemical potential differences of the solvent, a thermodynamic parameter. Reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis
can remove many types of dissolved and suspended species from water, including bacteria, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side
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Reverse Osmosis (group)
Reverse Osmosis is a seventeen-person co-ed a cappella group at the University of Southern California
University of Southern California
founded in January 2001. Reverse Osmosis (RO) routinely performs on the USC campus, but has also toured the East and West Coast, performing in Times Square
Times Square
in NYC and Ghirardelli Square
Ghirardelli Square
on San Francisco Bay. RO is a perennial competitor in the annual International Championship of Collegiate A Cappella competition. In the 2005-2006 ICCA competition, RO took first place overall in the Quarterfinal round held at USC's Bovard Auditorium
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Jean-Antoine Nollet
Jean-Antoine Nollet
Jean-Antoine Nollet
(19 November 1700 – 25 April 1770) was a French clergyman and physicist. As a priest, he was also known as Abbé Nollet.Contents1 Scientific work 2 See also 3 References 4 Sources 5 Further readingScientific work[edit] Nollet was particularly interested in the new science of electricity, which he explored with the help of Du Fay and Réaumur. He joined the Royal Society
Royal Society
of London
London
in 1734 and later became the first professor of experimental physics at the University of Paris
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Thermodynamic
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics
is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to other forms of energy and work. The behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics, irrespective of the composition or specific properties of the material or system in question. The laws of thermodynamics are explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics
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Potable Water
Drinking
Drinking
water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation. The amount of drinking water required varies.[1] It depends on physical activity, age, health issues, and environmental conditions.[1] Americans, on average, drink one litre of water a day and 95% drink less than three litres per day.[2] For those who work in a hot climate, up to 16 liters a day may be required.[1] Water
Water
is essential for life.[1] Typically in developed countries, tap water meets drinking water quality standards, even though only a small proportion is actually consumed or used in food preparation. Other typical uses include washing, toilets, and irrigation. Greywater
Greywater
may also be used for toilets or irrigation
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Solution
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. The mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is commonly the case
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Solvent
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid. The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes) and in perfumes (ethanol). Water is a solvent for polar molecules and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell
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Water Potential
Water
Water
potential is the potential energy of water per unit volume relative to pure water in reference conditions. Water
Water
potential quantifies the tendency of water to move from one area to another due to osmosis, gravity, mechanical pressure, or matrix effects such as capillary action (which is caused by surface tension). The concept of water potential has proved useful in understanding and computing water movement within plants, animals, and soil. Water
Water
potential is typically expressed in potential energy per unit volume and very often is represented by the Greek letter ψ. Water
Water
potential integrates a variety of different potential drivers of water movement, which may operate in the same or different directions. Within complex biological systems, many potential factors may be operating simultaneously
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Salt
Table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. Salt
Salt
is present in vast quantities in seawater, where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per litre, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt
Salt
is essential for life in general, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. Salt
Salt
is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation. Some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 8,000 years ago, when people living in the area of present-day Romania boiled spring water to extract salts; a salt-works in China dates to approximately the same period
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Effluent
Effluent
Effluent
is an outflowing of water or gas to natural body of water, or from a manmade structure. Effluent, in engineering, is the stream exiting a chemical reactor.[1] Background[edit] Effluent
Effluent
is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as "wastewater - treated or untreated - that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer, or industrial outfall. Generally refers to wastes discharged into surface waters".[2] The Compact Oxford English Dictionary defines effluent as "liquid waste or sewage discharged into a river or the sea".[3] Effluent
Effluent
in the artificial sense is in general considered to be water pollution, such as the outflow from a sewage treatment facility or the wastewater discharge from industrial facilities. An effluent sump pump, for instance, pumps waste from toilets installed below a main sewage line
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University Of California At Los Angeles
A university (Latin: universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines
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Molecules
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.[4][5][6][7][8] Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge. However, in quantum physics, organic chemistry, and biochemistry, the term molecule is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions. In the kinetic theory of gases, the term molecule is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are monoatomic molecules.[9] A molecule may be homonuclear, that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element, as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear, a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O)
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University Of Florida
The University of Florida
Florida
(commonly referred to as Florida
Florida
or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university on a 2,000-acre (8.1 km2) campus in Gainesville, Florida
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Flux
Flux
Flux
describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance. A flux is either a concept based in physics or used with applied mathematics. Both concepts have mathematical rigor, enabling comparison of the underlying math when the terminology is unclear. For transport phenomena, flux is a vector quantity, describing the magnitude and direction of the flow of a substance or property
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National Research Council Of Canada
The National Research Council (NRC, French: Conseil national de recherches Canada) is the primary national research and technology organization (RTO) of the Government of Canada,[1] in science and technology research and development.[1] The Minister of Innovation, Science, and Economic Development is responsible for the National Research Council (NRC). The transformation of the NRC into an RTO that focuses on "business-led research" was part of the federal government's Economic Action Plan.[1] On 7 May 2013, the NRC launched its new "business approach" in which it offered four business lines: strategic research and development, technical services, management of science and technology infrastructure and NRC-Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP). With these services, NRC intended to shorten the gap between early stage research and development and commercialization.[1] At one point, NRC had over 30 approved programs.[2]. The departure of NRC President John R
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Filmtec Corporation
FilmTec Corporation was a US company established in Minnesota
Minnesota
in 1977 that specialized in manufacturing the then new thin-film composite membranes using in water treatment applications.[1] In August 1984, the company was acquired by Dow Chemical Company
Dow Chemical Company
forming its Dow Water & Process Solutions business unit, which is currently among the world's main membrane manufacturers. The unit has two large resellers, Siemens
Siemens
and the RO Group, both of which also sell products from competitors including Hydranautics and GE.Contents1 Applications 2 Competition 3 References 4 External linksApplications[edit] Applications include water purification, desalination, maple syrup, power generation and semiconductor manufacturing
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