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Retinue
A retinue is a body of persons "retained" in the service of a noble or royal personage, a suite (literal French meaning: what follows) of "retainers".Contents1 Etymology 2 Employment 3 Contrast 4 See also 5 Sources 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The word, recorded in English since circa 1375, stems from Old French retenue, itself from retenir, from Latin retenere, hold back, retain. Employment[edit] Such retainers were not necessarily in the domestic service or otherwise normally close to the presence of their lord, but also include others who wore his livery (a kind of uniform, in distinctive colours) and claimed his protection, such as musicians and private teachers. Some were a source of trouble and abuse in the 15th and early 16th century. Often their real importance was very different from their rank: on the one hand, sinecures and supernumerary appointments allowed enjoying benefits without performing full service
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Shrine Of Venus Cloacina
The Shrine of Venus Cloacina ( Sacellum
Sacellum
Cloacinae or Sacrum Cloacina) — the "Shrine of Venus of the Sewer" — was a small sanctuary on the Roman Forum, honoring the divinity of the Cloaca Maxima, the spirit of the "Great Drain" or Sewer of Rome.[1] Cloacina, the Etruscan goddess associated with the entrance to the sewer system, was later identified with the Roman goddess Venus for unknown reasons, according to Pliny the Elder.[2] Contents1 History and legend 2 Description 3 Religious significance 4 References 5 External linksHistory and legend[edit]The Sacrum Cloacina as it appeared in August 2012. The top of the shrine is seen at ground level
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Nobility
Nobility
Nobility
is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence), and vary by country and era
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1910–11), is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time
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Public Domain
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply
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Scottish Clan
A Scottish clan
Scottish clan
(from Gaelic clann, "children") is a kinship group among the Scottish people. Clans give a sense of shared identity and descent to members, and in modern times have an official structure recognised by the Court of the Lord Lyon, which regulates Scottish heraldry and coats of arms. Most clans have their own tartan patterns, usually dating from the 19th century, which members may incorporate into kilts or other clothing. The modern image of clans, each with their own tartan and specific land, was promulgated by the Scottish author Sir Walter Scott
Sir Walter Scott
after influence by others. Historically, tartan designs were associated with Lowland and Highland districts whose weavers tended to produce cloth patterns favoured in those districts
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Rus (region)
Originally, the name Rus' (Русь) referred to the people,[1] regions, and medieval states (ninth to twelfth centuries) of the Kievan Rus'. In the Western culture, it is better known as Ruthenia from the eleventh century onwards.[2] Its territories are today distributed among Belarus, Ukraine, and a part of the European section of Russia. One of the earliest written sources mentioning the people called Rus' (as Rhos) dates to 839 in the Annales Bertiniani. This chronicle identifies them as a Germanic tribe called the Swedes
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Cohort (military Unit)
A cohort (from the Latin cohors, plural cohortes) was a standard tactical military unit of a Roman legion
Roman legion
and was composed of roughly 500 soldiers. A cohort is considered to be the equivalent of a modern military battalion. The cohort replaced the maniple following the reforms attributed to Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius
in 107 BC. Until the middle of the third century AD, 10 cohorts (about 5000 men total) made up a Roman legion.Contents1 Legionary cohort 2 Types of cohort 3 Other Roman cohorts 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksLegionary cohort[edit] Originally, a cohort consisted of six centuriae, each commanded by a centurion assisted by junior officers. At various times prior to the reforms, a century might have 60 to 100 men
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Knight
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors.[1] During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings.[2] The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback. Knighthood
Knighthood
in the Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (and especially the joust) from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or medieval period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority, invasions, and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Livery
A livery /ˈlɪvəri/ is a uniform, insignia or symbol adorning, in a non-military context, a person, an object or a vehicle that denotes a relationship between the wearer of the livery and an individual or corporate body. Often, elements of the heraldry relating to the individual or corporate body feature in the livery. Alternatively, some kind of a personal emblem or badge, or a distinctive colour, is featured. The word itself derives from the French livrée, meaning dispensed, handed over
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Affinity (medieval)
In the Middle Ages, an affinity was a collective name for the group of (usually) men a lord gathered around himself in his service; it has been described by one modern historian as "the servants, retainers, and other followers of a lord",[1] and as "part of the normal fabric of society".[2] It is considered a fundamental aspect of bastard feudalism,[3] and acted as a means of tying magnates to the lower nobility, just as feudalism had done in a different way.[4] One form of the relationship was known as livery and maintenance
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Royal Family
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an emperor or empress, and the term papal family describes the family of a pope, while the terms baronial family, comital family, ducal family, grand ducal family, or princely family are more appropriate to describe the relatives of a reigning baron, count, duke, grand duke, or prince. However, in common parlance members of any family which reigns by hereditary right are often referred to as royalty or "royals." It is also customary in some circles to refer to the extended relations of a deposed monarch and his or her descendants as a royal family. A dynasty is sometimes referred to as "the House of ..."
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Cohors Amicorum
Cohors amicorum is a Latin term, literally meaning "cohort of friends". The notion cohort is to be taken not in the strict, military sense (primarily the constitutive unit of a Roman legion; circa battalion), but indicated a fairly large number; accordingly, friend is to be taken in a loose sense, rather as in amicus curiae; compare the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
aulic title philos [basilikos]. Roman history[edit]Originally, since the Roman republic proper (i.e. before the Principate), the cohors amicorum was synonymous with the cohors praetoria (so called after the praetorium, the tent -in the field- or more permanent dwelling of a Roman commanding general, military headquarters but also site of his other actions, e.g
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Druzhina
Druzhina, drużyna, or družyna (Slovak: and Czech: družina; Polish: drużyna; Russian: дружи́на; Ukrainian: дружи́на, druzhýna literally a "fellowship") in the medieval history of Poland and Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
was a retinue in service of a chieftain, also called knyaz. The name is derived from the Slavic word drug (друг) with the meaning of "companion, friend".[1][2] English equivalent is retinue.Contents1 Early Rus 2 Poland 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksEarly Rus[edit] Further information: Rus Khaganate
Rus Khaganate
and Kievan Rus In early Rus a druzhina helped the prince administer his principality and constituted the area's military force
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