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Resource Depletion
RESOURCE DEPLETION is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished. Natural resources are commonly divided between renewable resources and non-renewable resources (see also mineral resource classification ). Use of either of these forms of resources beyond their rate of replacement is considered to be resource depletion. Resource depletion is most commonly used in reference to farming , fishing , mining , water usage, and consumption of fossil fuels
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Depletion (other)
DEPLETION may refer to: * Depletion (accounting) , an accounting concept that may be relating to: * Oil depletion
Oil depletion
, the declining of oil supply * Overdrafting , extracting groundwater beyond the equilibrium yield of an aquifer *
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Natural Resource
NATURAL RESOURCES are resources that exist without actions of humankind. This includes all valued characteristics such as magnetic, gravitational, and electrical properties and forces. On earth it includes: sunlight , atmosphere , water , land (includes all minerals) along with all vegetation and animal life that naturally subsists upon or within the heretofore identified characteristics and substances. Particular areas such as the rainforest in Fatu-Hiva are often characterized by the biodiversity and geodiversity existent in their ecosystems. Natural resources may be further classified in different ways. Natural resources are materials and components (something that can be used) that can be found within the environment. Every man-made product is composed of natural resources (at its fundamental level)
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Renewable Resource
A RENEWABLE RESOURCE is a natural resource which replenishes to overcome resource depletion caused by usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes in a finite amount of time in a human time scale. Renewable resources are a part of Earth's natural environment and the largest components of its ecosphere . A positive life cycle assessment is a key indicator of a resource's sustainability. Definitions of renewable resources may also include agricultural production, as in sustainable agriculture and to an extent water resources . In 1962 Paul Alfred Weiss defined Renewable Resources as: "_The total range of living organisms providing man with food, fibres, drugs, etc..._". Another type of renewable resources is renewable energy resources. Common sources of renewable energy include solar, geothermal and wind power, which are all categorised as renewable resources
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Non-renewable Resource
A NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE (also called a finite resource) is a resource that does not renew itself at a sufficient rate for sustainable economic extraction in meaningful human time-frames. An example is carbon-based, organically-derived fuel. The original organic material, with the aid of heat and pressure, becomes a fuel such as oil or gas. Earth minerals and metal ores , fossil fuels (coal , petroleum , natural gas ) and groundwater in certain aquifers are all considered non-renewable resources, though individual elements are almost always conserved. In contrast, resources such as timber (when harvested sustainably ) and wind (used to power energy conversion systems) are considered renewable resources , largely because their localized replenishment can occur within time frames meaningful to humans
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Mineral Resource Classification
MINERAL RESOURCE CLASSIFICATION is the classification of mineral resources based on an increasing level of geological knowledge and confidence. A "McKelvey diagram" showing the relation of mineral resource classifications to economics and geologic certainty. Mineral deposits can be classified as: * MINERAL RESOURCES that are potentially valuable, and for which reasonable prospects exist for eventual economic extraction. * MINERAL RESERVES or ORE RESERVES that are valuable and legally and economically and technically feasible to extractIn common mining terminology , an "ore deposit" by definition must have an 'ore reserve', and may or may not have additional 'resources'. Classification, because it is an economic function, is governed by statutes , regulations and industry best practice norms
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Farm
A FARM is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops ; it is the basic facility in food production. The name is used for specialised units such as arable farms , vegetable farms, fruit farms, dairy , pig and poultry farms , and land used for the production of natural fibres , biofuel and other commodities . It includes ranches , feedlots , orchards , plantations and estates, smallholdings and hobby farms, and includes the farmhouse and agricultural buildings as well as the land. In modern times the term has been extended so as to include such industrial operations as wind farms and fish farms , both of which can operate on land or sea. Farming originated independently in different parts of the world, as hunter gatherer societies transitioned to food production rather than, food capture
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Fishing
FISHING is the activity of trying to catch fish . Fish
Fish
are normally caught in the wild . Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering , spearing , netting , angling and trapping . Fishing
Fishing
may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs , cephalopods , crustaceans , and echinoderms . The term is not normally applied to catching farmed fish , or to aquatic mammals , such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. According to the United Nations
United Nations
FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms
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Mining
MINING is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an orebody , lode , vein , seam , reef or placer deposits. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals , coal , oil shale , gemstones , limestone , chalk , dimension stone , rock salt , potash , gravel , and clay . Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water . Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed
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Water
WATER is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams , lakes , and oceans , and the fluids of most living organisms . Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms , that are connected by covalent bonds . Water strictly refers to the liquid state of that substance, that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure ; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice ) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor ). It also occurs in nature as snow , glaciers , ice packs and icebergs , clouds , fog , dew , aquifers , and atmospheric humidity . Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. It is vital for all known forms of life
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Fossil Fuel
A FOSSIL FUEL is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms , containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis . The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Fossil
Fossil
fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum , coal , and natural gas . Other commonly used derivatives include kerosene and propane . Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon to hydrogen ratios like methane , to liquids like petroleum, to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane
Methane
can be found in hydrocarbon fields either alone, associated with oil , or in the form of methane clathrates
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Aquifer
An AQUIFER is an underground layer of water -bearing permeable rock , rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel , sand , or silt ) from which groundwater can be extracted using a water well . The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology . Related terms include AQUITARD, which is a bed of low permeability along an aquifer, and AQUICLUDE (or _aquifuge_), which is a solid, impermeable area underlying or overlying an aquifer. If the impermeable area overlies the aquifer, pressure could cause it to become a confined aquifer
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Habitat Destruction
HABITAT DESTRUCTION is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present. In this process, the organisms that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity . Habitat destruction by human activity is mainly for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for industry production and urbanization . Clearing habitats for agriculture is the principal cause of habitat destruction. Other important causes of habitat destruction include mining , logging , trawling and urban sprawl . Habitat destruction is currently ranked as the primary cause of species extinction worldwide
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Biodiversity
BIODIVERSITY, a portmanteau of "biological diversity," generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth
Earth
. According to the United Nations Environment Programme , biodiversity typically measures variation at the genetic , the species , and the ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator , which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity . Biodiversity
Biodiversity
is not distributed evenly on Earth
Earth
, and is richest in the tropics. These tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 per cent of earth's surface, and contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific , where sea surface temperature is highest and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA , morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature )
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Ecosystem
An ECOSYSTEM is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. As ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment, they can be of any size but usually encompass specific, limited spaces (although some scientists say that the entire planet is an ecosystem). Energy, water, nitrogen and soil minerals are other essential abiotic components of an ecosystem. The energy that flows through ecosystems is obtained primarily from the sun. It generally enters the system through photosynthesis , a process that also captures carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. By feeding on plants and on one another, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system
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