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Resource Depletion
RESOURCE DEPLETION is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished. Natural resources are commonly divided between renewable resources and non-renewable resources (see also mineral resource classification ). Use of either of these forms of resources beyond their rate of replacement is considered to be resource depletion. Resource depletion is most commonly used in reference to farming , fishing , mining , water usage, and consumption of fossil fuels . CONTENTS * 1 Causes * 2 Minerals * 3 Oil * 4 Deforestation * 4.1 Causes * 4.2 Environmental impact * 4.3 Controlling deforestation * 5 Wetlands * 6 Water * 6.1 Political Effects * 7 See also * 8 References CAUSES * Aquifer depletion * Habitat degradation leads to the loss of biodiversity (i.e. species and ecosystems with its ecosystem services ) * Irrigation * Mining for fossil fuels and minerals * Overconsumption , excessive or unnecessary use of resources * Overpopulation * Pollution or contamination of resources * Slash-and-burn agricultural practices, currently occurring in many developing countries * Soil erosion * Technological and industrial development * DeforestationMINERALS Main article: Peak minerals Minerals are needed to provide food, clothing, and housing
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Depletion (other)
DEPLETION may refer to: * Depletion (accounting) , an accounting concept that may be relating to: * Oil depletion , the declining of oil supply * Overdrafting , extracting groundwater beyond the equilibrium yield of an aquifer * Ozone depletion , a decline in the total amount of ozone in Earth's stratosphere * Resource depletion , the exhaustion of raw materials within a regionPHYSICS * Depletion force , an effective force in molecular and colloidal systems * Depletion region , a concept of semiconductor physics * Depletion width , a concept of semiconductor physics * Grain boundary depletion , a mechanism of corrosion This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title DEPLETION. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Depletion additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Natural Resource
NATURAL RESOURCES are resources that exist without actions of humankind. This includes all valued characteristics such as magnetic, gravitational, and electrical properties and forces. On earth it includes: sunlight , atmosphere , water , land (includes all minerals) along with all vegetation and animal life that naturally subsists upon or within the heretofore identified characteristics and substances. Particular areas such as the rainforest in Fatu-Hiva are often characterized by the biodiversity and geodiversity existent in their ecosystems. Natural resources may be further classified in different ways. Natural resources are materials and components (something that can be used) that can be found within the environment. Every man-made product is composed of natural resources (at its fundamental level). A NATURAL RESOURCE may exist as a separate entity such as fresh water, air , and as well as a living organism such as a fish, or it may exist in an alternate form that must be processed to obtain the resource such as metal ores , petroleum , and most forms of energy. There is much debate worldwide over natural resource allocations, this is particularly true during periods of increasing scarcity and shortages (depletion and overconsumption of resources ) but also because the exportation of natural resources is the basis for many economies (particularly for developed countries )
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Renewable Resource
A RENEWABLE RESOURCE is a natural resource which replenishes to overcome resource depletion caused by usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes in a finite amount of time in a human time scale. Renewable resources are a part of Earth's natural environment and the largest components of its ecosphere . A positive life cycle assessment is a key indicator of a resource's sustainability. Definitions of renewable resources may also include agricultural production, as in sustainable agriculture and to an extent water resources . In 1962 Paul Alfred Weiss defined Renewable Resources as: "_The total range of living organisms providing man with food, fibres, drugs, etc..._". Another type of renewable resources is renewable energy resources. Common sources of renewable energy include solar, geothermal and wind power, which are all categorised as renewable resources
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Non-renewable Resource
A NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE (also called a finite resource) is a resource that does not renew itself at a sufficient rate for sustainable economic extraction in meaningful human time-frames. An example is carbon-based, organically-derived fuel. The original organic material, with the aid of heat and pressure, becomes a fuel such as oil or gas. Earth minerals and metal ores , fossil fuels (coal , petroleum , natural gas ) and groundwater in certain aquifers are all considered non-renewable resources, though individual elements are almost always conserved. In contrast, resources such as timber (when harvested sustainably ) and wind (used to power energy conversion systems) are considered renewable resources , largely because their localized replenishment can occur within time frames meaningful to humans. CONTENTS * 1 Earth minerals and metal ores * 2 Fossil fuels * 3 Nuclear fuels * 4 Renewable resources * 5 Economic models * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links EARTH MINERALS AND METAL ORES Main articles: Mineral and Ore Further information: Mining Earth minerals and metal ores are examples of non-renewable resources
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Mineral Resource Classification
MINERAL RESOURCE CLASSIFICATION is the classification of mineral resources based on an increasing level of geological knowledge and confidence. A "McKelvey diagram" showing the relation of mineral resource classifications to economics and geologic certainty. Mineral deposits can be classified as: * MINERAL RESOURCES that are potentially valuable, and for which reasonable prospects exist for eventual economic extraction. * MINERAL RESERVES or ORE RESERVES that are valuable _and_ legally and economically and technically feasible to extractIn common mining terminology , an "ore deposit" by definition must have an 'ore reserve', and may or may not have additional 'resources'. Classification, because it is an economic function, is governed by statutes , regulations and industry best practice norms. There are several classification schemes worldwide, however the Canadian CIM classification (see NI 43-101 ), the Australasian Joint Ore Reserves Committee Code (JORC Code), the South African Code for the Reporting of Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves (SAMREC) and the “chessboard” classification scheme of mineral deposits by H. G. Dill are the general standards
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Farm
A FARM is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops ; it is the basic facility in food production. The name is used for specialised units such as arable farms , vegetable farms, fruit farms, dairy , pig and poultry farms , and land used for the production of natural fibres , biofuel and other commodities . It includes ranches , feedlots , orchards , plantations and estates, smallholdings and hobby farms, and includes the farmhouse and agricultural buildings as well as the land. In modern times the term has been extended so as to include such industrial operations as wind farms and fish farms , both of which can operate on land or sea. Farming originated independently in different parts of the world, as hunter gatherer societies transitioned to food production rather than, food capture. It may have started about 12,000 years ago with the domestication of livestock in the Fertile Crescent in western Asia, soon to be followed by the cultivation of crops. Modern units tend to specialise in the crops or livestock best suited to the region, with their finished products being sold for the retail market or for further processing, with farm products being traded around the world. Modern farms in developed countries are highly mechanized
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Fishing
FISHING is the activity of trying to catch fish . Fish
Fish
are normally caught in the wild . Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering , spearing , netting , angling and trapping . Fishing
Fishing
may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs , cephalopods , crustaceans , and echinoderms . The term is not normally applied to catching farmed fish , or to aquatic mammals , such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. According to the United Nations
United Nations
FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms. In addition to providing food, modern fishing is also a recreational pastime
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Mining
MINING is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an orebody , lode , vein , seam , reef or placer deposits. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals , coal , oil shale , gemstones , limestone , chalk , dimension stone , rock salt , potash , gravel , and clay . Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water . Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed. Mining operations usually create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, and modern practices have significantly improved safety in mines. Levels of metals recycling are generally low
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Water
WATER is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams , lakes , and oceans , and the fluids of most living organisms . Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms , that are connected by covalent bonds . Water strictly refers to the liquid state of that substance, that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure ; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice ) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor ). It also occurs in nature as snow , glaciers , ice packs and icebergs , clouds , fog , dew , aquifers , and atmospheric humidity . Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. It is vital for all known forms of life . On Earth, 96.5% of the planet's crust water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction in other large water bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapor , clouds (formed of ice and liquid water suspended in air), and precipitation . Only 2.5% of this water is freshwater , and 98.8% of that water is in ice (excepting ice in clouds) and groundwater . Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller amount of the Earth's freshwater (0.003%) is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. A greater quantity of water is found in the earth's interior
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Fossil Fuel
A FOSSIL FUEL is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms , containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis . The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Fossil
Fossil
fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum , coal , and natural gas . Other commonly used derivatives include kerosene and propane . Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon to hydrogen ratios like methane , to liquids like petroleum, to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane
Methane
can be found in hydrocarbon fields either alone, associated with oil , or in the form of methane clathrates . The theory that fossil fuels formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over millions of years was first introduced by Georgius Agricola
Georgius Agricola
in 1556 and later by Mikhail Lomonosov in the 18th century. The Energy Information Administration
Energy Information Administration
estimates that in 2007 the primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum 36.0%, coal 27.4%, natural gas 23.0%, amounting to an 86.4% share for fossil fuels in primary energy consumption in the world
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Aquifer
An AQUIFER is an underground layer of water -bearing permeable rock , rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel , sand , or silt ) from which groundwater can be extracted using a water well . The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology . Related terms include AQUITARD, which is a bed of low permeability along an aquifer, and AQUICLUDE (or _aquifuge_), which is a solid, impermeable area underlying or overlying an aquifer. If the impermeable area overlies the aquifer, pressure could cause it to become a confined aquifer. CONTENTS * 1 Depth * 2 Classification * 2.1 Saturated versus unsaturated * 2.2 Aquifers versus aquitards * 2.3 Confined versus unconfined * 2.4 Isotropic versus anisotropic * 3 Groundwater in rock formations * 4 Human dependence on groundwater * 5 Subsidence * 6 Saltwater intrusion * 7 Salination * 8 Examples * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links DEPTHAquifers may occur at various depths. Those closer to the surface are not only more likely to be used for water supply and irrigation, but are also more likely to be topped up by the local rainfall. Many desert areas have limestone hills or mountains within them or close to them that can be exploited as groundwater resources
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Habitat Destruction
HABITAT DESTRUCTION is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present. In this process, the organisms that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity . Habitat destruction by human activity is mainly for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for industry production and urbanization . Clearing habitats for agriculture is the principal cause of habitat destruction. Other important causes of habitat destruction include mining , logging , trawling and urban sprawl . Habitat destruction is currently ranked as the primary cause of species extinction worldwide. It is a process of natural environmental change that may be caused by habitat fragmentation , geological processes, climate change or by human activities such as the introduction of invasive species , ecosystem nutrient depletion, and other human activities The terms HABITAT LOSS and HABITAT REDUCTION are also used in a wider sense, including loss of habitat from other factors, such as water and noise pollution
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Biodiversity
BIODIVERSITY, a portmanteau of "biological diversity," generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth . According to the United Nations Environment Programme , biodiversity typically measures variation at the genetic , the species , and the ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator , which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity . Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth , and is richest in the tropics. These tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 per cent of earth's surface, and contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific , where sea surface temperature is highest and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity . Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the future. Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions . More than 99.9 percent of all species that ever lived on Earth, amounting to over five billion species, are estimated to be extinct . Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA , morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature ). For example, _ Boa constrictor _ is one of four species of the _Boa _ genus. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being . In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time
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Ecosystem
An ECOSYSTEM is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. As ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment, they can be of any size but usually encompass specific, limited spaces (although some scientists say that the entire planet is an ecosystem). Energy, water, nitrogen and soil minerals are other essential abiotic components of an ecosystem. The energy that flows through ecosystems is obtained primarily from the sun. It generally enters the system through photosynthesis , a process that also captures carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. By feeding on plants and on one another, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system. They also influence the quantity of plant and microbial biomass present. By breaking down dead organic matter, decomposers release carbon back to the atmosphere and facilitate nutrient cycling by converting nutrients stored in dead biomass back to a form that can be readily used by plants and other microbes
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