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Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names
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Cellular Democracy
As developed by geolibertarian political economist Fred E. Foldvary , CELLULAR DEMOCRACY is a model of democracy based on multi-level bottom-up structure based on either small neighborhood governmental districts or contractual communities. CONTENTS * 1 Councils * 2 Secession * 3 Taxation * 4 Barangay * 5 See also * 6 References COUNCILSIn cellular democracy, a jurisdiction such as a county or city is divided into neighborhood districts with a population of about 500 people, with about 100 to 200 households. The voters in the district would elect a council. The small size of districts would allow for more informed voters at a smaller cost. Representatives, plus one alternate, would be elected to the council. This would be a "level-1 council". A region containing 10 to 20 neighborhood districts would then vote for a "level-2 council"
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Vassal State
A VASSAL STATE is any state that is subordinate to another. The vassal in these cases is the ruler, rather than the state itself. Being a vassal most commonly implies providing military assistance to the dominant state when requested to do so; it sometimes implies paying tribute , but a state which does so is better described as a tributary state . In simpler terms the vassal state would have to provide military power to the dominant state. Today, more common terms are puppet state , protectorate or associated state
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Sortition
In governance , SORTITION (also known as ALLOTMENT or DEMARCHY) selects political officials as a random sample from a larger pool of candidates. The logic behind the sortition process originates from the idea that “power corrupts.” For that reason, when the time came to choose individuals to be assigned to empowering positions, the ancient Athenians resorted to choosing by lot. In ancient Athenian democracy , SORTITION was therefore the traditional and primary method for appointing political officials, and its use was regarded as a principal characteristic of true democracy . Today, sortition is commonly used to select prospective jurors in common law -based legal systems and is sometimes used in forming citizen groups with political advisory power (citizens\' juries or citizens\' assemblies )
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Multi-party System
A MULTI-PARTY SYSTEM is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition . Multi-party systems tend to be more common in parliamentary systems than presidential systems , and far more common in countries that use proportional representation compared to countries that use first-past-the-post elections. First-past-the-post requires concentrated areas of support for large representation in the legislature whereas proportional representation better reflects the range of a population's views. Proportional systems have multi-member districts with more than one representative elected from a given district to the same legislative body, and thus a greater number of viable parties. Duverger\'s Law states that the number of viable political parties is one plus the number of seats in a district
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Athenian Democracy
ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis ) of Athens , comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica
Attica
, and is the first known democracy in the world. Other Greek cities set up democracies, most following the Athenian model, but none are as well documented as Athens'. It was a system of direct democracy , in which participating citizens voted directly on legislation and executive bills. Participation was not open to all residents: to vote one had to be an adult, male citizen i.e. neither a resident alien nor a slave , and the number of these "varied between 30,000 and 50,000 out of a total population of around 250,000 to 300,000" or "no more than 30 percent of the total adult population." The longest-lasting democratic leader was Pericles
Pericles

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Fusion Of Powers
FUSION OF POWERS is a feature of some parliamentary democracies , especially those following the Westminster system
Westminster system
, where the executive and legislative branches of government are intermingled. It is often contrasted with the more strict separation of powers found in most Semi-presidential and presidential democracies . Fusion of powers exists in many, if not a majority, of parliamentary democracies, and does so by design. The system first arose as a result of political evolution in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
over many centuries, as the powers of the monarch became constrained by Parliament . The term fusion of powers itself is believed to have been coined by the British constitutional expert, Walter Bagehot
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Chiefdom
A CHIEFDOM is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship , and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'. These elites form a political-ideological aristocracy relative to the general group. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Chiefdoms in Archaeological Theory * 1.2 Simple * 1.3 Complex * 2 Chiefdoms on the Indian subcontinent * 3 Native Chieftain System in southern China * 4 Alternatives to chiefdoms * 5 See also * 6 Bibliography * 7 References * 8 External links OVERVIEWIn anthropological theory , one model of human social development rooted in ideas of cultural evolution describes a chiefdom as a form of social organization more complex than a tribe or a band society , and less complex than a state or a civilization
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Associated State
An ASSOCIATED STATE is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a (usually larger) nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate , is adopted. The details of such FREE ASSOCIATION are contained in United Nations General Assembly resolution 1541 (XV) Principle VI, a Compact of Free Association or Associated Statehood Act and are specific to the countries involved. In the case of the Cook Islands and Niue , the details of their free association arrangement are contained in several documents, such as their respective constitutions, the 1983 Exchange of Letters between the governments of New Zealand and the Cook Islands, and the 2001 Joint Centenary Declaration
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Supranational Union
A SUPRANATIONAL UNION is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states. The concept of supranational union is sometimes used to describe the European Union (EU), as a new type of political entity . The EU is the only entity which provides for international popular elections, going beyond the level of political integration normally afforded by international treaty . The term "supranational" is sometimes used in a loose, undefined sense in other contexts, sometimes as a substitute for international, transnational or global. Another method of decision-making in international organisations is intergovernmentalism , in which state governments play a more prominent role
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Stratocracy
A STRATOCRACY (from στρατός, stratos, "army " and κράτος, kratos, "dominion", "power") is a form of government headed by military chiefs. It is not the same as a military dictatorship or military junta where the military's political power is not enforced or even supported by other laws. Rather, stratocracy is a form of military government in which the state and the military are traditionally or constitutionally the same entity, and government positions are always occupied by commissioned officers and military leaders. Citizens with mandatory or voluntary military service, or who have been honorably discharged, have the right to elect or govern. The military's political power is supported by law, the constitution, and the society. A stratocracy can therefore be considered a meritocracy and does not necessarily need to be autocratic by nature in order to preserve its right to rule
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Administrative Division
An ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION, UNIT, ENTITY, AREA or REGION, also referred to as a SUBNATIONAL ENTITY, CONSTITUENT UNIT, or COUNTRY SUBDIVISION, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration . Administrative divisions are granted a certain degree of autonomy and are usually required to manage themselves through their own local governments . Countries are divided up into these smaller units to make managing their land and the affairs of their people easier. A country may be divided into provinces , which, in turn, are divided into counties , which, in turn, may be divided in whole or in part into municipalities . Administrative divisions are conceptually separate from dependent territories , with the former being an integral part of the state and the other being only under some lesser form of control
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Corporatocracy
CORPORATOCRACY /ˌkɔːrpərəˈtɒkrəsi/ , is a recent term used to refer to an economic and political system controlled by corporations or corporate interests. It is most often used today as a term to describe the current economic situation in a particular country, especially the United States. This is different from corporatism , which is the organisation of society into groups with common interests. Corporatocracy
Corporatocracy
as a term is often used by observers across the political spectrum. Economist
Economist
Jeffrey Sachs
Jeffrey Sachs
described the United States as a corporatocracy in The Price of Civilization (2011). He suggested that it arose from four trends: weak national parties and strong political representation of individual districts, the large U.S
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Kritarchy
KRITARCHY is a system of rule by judges (Hebrew : שופטים‎, shoftim) in the tribal confederacy of ancient Israel during the period of time described in the Book of Judges
Book of Judges
, following Joshua
Joshua
's conquest of Canaan
Canaan
and prior to the united monarchy under Saul
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Meritocracy
MERITOCRACY (merit, from Latin
Latin
mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος kratos "strength, power") is a political philosophy holding that power should be vested in individuals almost exclusively based on ability and talent. Advancement in such a system is based on performance measured through examination and/or demonstrated achievement in the field where it is implemented
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Hegemony
HEGEMONY (UK : /hɪˈɡɛməni/ or /hɪˈdʒɛməni/ or US : /hɪˈdʒɛməni/ or pronunciation (help ·info ) or /ˈhɛdʒɪˌmoʊni/ or Greek : ἡγεμονία, hēgemonía), "leadership, rule" is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others. In ancient Greece (8th century BC – 6th century AD), hegemony denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over other city-states. The dominant state is known as the hegemon. In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the "Social or cultural predominance or ascendancy; predominance by one group within a society or milieu"
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