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Replicon (genetics)
A REPLICON is a DNA
DNA
molecule or RNA
RNA
molecule, or a region of DNA
DNA
or RNA, that replicates from a single origin of replication . CONTENTS * 1 Prokaryotes * 2 Eukaryotes * 3 See also * 4 References PROKARYOTESFor most prokaryotic chromosomes , the replicon is the entire chromosome. One notable exception found comes from archaea , where two Sulfolobus species have been shown to contain three replicons. Examples of bacterial species that have been found to possess multiple replicons include: Rhodobacter sphaeroides (2), Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
, and Burkholderia multivorans (3). These "secondary" (or tertiary) chromosomes are often described as a molecule that is a mixture between a true chromosome and a plasmid and are sometimes called "chromids"
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DNA
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˌkliːɪk, -ˌkleɪɪk/ ( listen ); DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses . DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids ; alongside proteins , lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides ), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life . Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix . The two DNA strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides . Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases — cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A), or thymine (T) — a sugar called deoxyribose , and a phosphate group
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RNA
RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding , decoding , regulation , and expression of genes . RNA
RNA
and DNA
DNA
are nucleic acids , and, along with lipids , proteins and carbohydrates , constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life . Like DNA, RNA
RNA
is assembled as a chain of nucleotides , but unlike DNA
DNA
it is more often found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA
RNA
(_MRNA_) to convey genetic information (using the letters G, U, A, and C to denote the nitrogenous bases guanine , uracil , adenine , and cytosine ) that directs synthesis of specific proteins. Many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA
RNA
genome
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DNA Replication
In molecular biology , DNA
DNA
REPLICATION is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA
DNA
from one original DNA molecule. This process occurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance . The cell possesses the distinctive property of division, which makes replication of DNA
DNA
essential. DNA
DNA
is made up of a double helix of two complementary strands. During replication, these strands are separated. Each strand of the original DNA
DNA
molecule then serves as a template for the production of its counterpart, a process referred to as semiconservative replication . Cellular proofreading and error-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA
DNA
replication. In a cell , DNA
DNA
replication begins at specific locations, or origins of replication , in the genome
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Origin Of Replication
The ORIGIN OF REPLICATION (also called the REPLICATION ORIGIN) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated. This can either involve the replication of DNA in living organisms such as prokaryotes and eukaryotes, or that of DNA or RNA in viruses, such as double-stranded RNA viruses . DNA replication
DNA replication
may proceed from this point bidirectionally or unidirectionally. The specific structure of the origin of replication varies somewhat from species to species, but all share some common characteristics such as high AT content (repeats of adenine and thymine are easier to separate because their base stacking interactions are not as strong as those of guanine and cytosine ). The origin of replication binds the pre-replication complex , a protein complex that recognizes, unwinds, and begins to copy DNA
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Prokaryotic
A PROKARYOTE is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane -bound nucleus (karyon), mitochondria , or any other membrane-bound organelle . The word prokaryote comes from the Greek πρό (pro) "before" and κάρυον (karyon) "nut or kernel ". Prokaryotes can be divided into two domains , archaea and bacteria . In contrast, species with nuclei and organelles are placed in the domain Eukaryota . In the prokaryotes, all the intracellular water-soluble components (proteins , DNA
DNA
and metabolites ) are located together in the cytoplasm enclosed by the cell membrane , rather than in separate cellular compartments . Bacteria, however, do possess protein-based bacterial microcompartments , which are thought to act as primitive organelles enclosed in protein shells. Some prokaryotes, such as cyanobacteria may form large colonies . Others, such as myxobacteria , have multicellular stages in their life cycles
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Chromosomes
A CHROMOSOME (from ancient Greek : χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means color, soma means body) is a DNA
DNA
molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome ) of an organism. Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division . Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once ( S phase ), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere , resulting in an X-shaped structure. The original chromosome and the copy are now called sister chromatids . During metaphase, when a chromosome is in its most condensed state, the X-shape structure is called a metaphase chromosome. In this highly condensed form chromosomes are easiest to distinguish and study. Chromosomes vary widely between different organisms . Some species such as certain bacteria , which lack histones , also contain plasmids or other extrachromosomal DNA
DNA

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Archaea
The ARCHAEA (/ɑːrˈkiːə/ (_ listen ) or /ɑːrˈkeɪə/ ar-KEE-ə_ or _ar-KAY-ə_ ) constitute a domain and kingdom of single-celled microorganisms . These microbes (ARCHAEA; singular ARCHAEON) are prokaryotes , meaning that they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their cells. Archaea
Archaea
were initially classified as bacteria , receiving the name ARCHAEBACTERIA (in the Archaebacteria kingdom), but this classification is outdated. Archaeal cells have unique properties separating them from the other two domains of life, Bacteria
Bacteria
and Eukaryota . The Archaea
Archaea
are further divided into multiple recognized phyla . Classification is difficult because the majority have not been isolated in the laboratory and have only been detected by analysis of their nucleic acids in samples from their environment
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Sulfolobus
SULFOLOBUS is a genus of microorganism in the family Sulfolobaceae . It belongs to the archaea domain. Sulfolobus
Sulfolobus
species grow in volcanic springs with optimal growth occurring at pH 2-3 and temperatures of 75-80 °C, making them acidophiles and thermophiles respectively. Sulfolobus
Sulfolobus
cells are irregularly shaped and flagellar . Species of Sulfolobus
Sulfolobus
are generally named after the location from which they were first isolated, e.g. Sulfolobus solfataricus was first isolated in the Solfatara volcano. Other species can be found throughout the world in areas of volcanic or geothermal activity, such as geological formations called mud pots , which are also known as solfatare (plural of solfatara)
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Rhodobacter Sphaeroides
RHODOBACTER SPHAEROIDES is a kind of purple bacterium ; a group of bacteria that can obtain energy through photosynthesis . Its best growth conditions are anaerobic phototrophy (photoheterotrophic and photoautotrophic ) and aerobic chemoheterotrophy in the absence of light. R. sphaeroides is also able to fix nitrogen . It is remarkably metabolically diverse, as it is able to grow heterotrophically via fermentation and aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Rhodobacter sphaeroides has been isolated from deep lakes and stagnate waters. Rhodobacter sphaeroides is one of the most pivotal organisms in the study of bacterial photosynthesis. It requires no unusual conditions for growth and is incredibly efficient . The regulation of its photosynthetic machinery is of great interest to researchers, as R. sphaeroides has an intricate system for sensing O2 tensions
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Vibrio Cholerae
VIBRIO CHOLERAE is a Gram-negative , comma-shaped bacterium . The bacterium's natural habitat is brackish or saltwater. Some strains of V. cholerae cause the disease cholera . V. cholerae is a facultative anaerobe and has a flagellum at one cell pole as well as pili . V. cholerae can undergo respiratory and fermentative metabolism. When ingested, V. cholerae can cause diarrhea and vomiting in a host within several hours to 2–3 days of ingestion. V. cholerae was first isolated as the cause of cholera by Italian anatomist Filippo Pacini in 1854, but his discovery was not widely known until Robert Koch
Robert Koch
, working independently 30 years later, publicized the knowledge and the means of fighting the disease
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Burkholderia Multivorans
BURKHOLDERIA MULTIVORANS is a species in Phylum proteobacteria . The cells are rod-shaped . It is known to cause human disease, such as colonisation of the lung in cystic fibrosis . REFERENCES * ^ Chu, Karen K.; MacDonald, Kelly L.; Davidson, Donald J.; Speert, David P. (October 2004). "Persistence of Burkholderia multivorans within the Pulmonary Macrophage in the Murine Lung" . Infect Immun. 72 (10): 6142–7. PMC 517555  . PMID 15385520
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Chromosome
A CHROMOSOME (from ancient Greek : χρωμόσωμα, _chromosoma, chroma_ means color, _soma_ means body) is a DNA
DNA
molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome ) of an organism. Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division . Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once ( S phase ), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere , resulting in an X-shaped structure. The original chromosome and the copy are now called sister chromatids . During metaphase, when a chromosome is in its most condensed state, the X-shape structure is called a metaphase chromosome. In this highly condensed form chromosomes are easiest to distinguish and study. Chromosomes vary widely between different organisms . Some species such as certain bacteria , which lack histones , also contain plasmids or other extrachromosomal DNA
DNA

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Plasmid
A PLASMID is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found in bacteria as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules; however, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms . In nature, plasmids often carry genes that may benefit the survival of the organism, for example antibiotic resistance . While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful to the organism under certain situations or particular conditions. Artificial plasmids are widely used as vectors in molecular cloning , serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA sequences within host organisms
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Azospirillum
A. brasilense A. canadense A. doebereinerae A. fermentarium A. formosense A. halopraeferens A. humicireducens A. irakense A. largimobile A. lipoferum A. melinis A. oryzae A. picis A. rugosum A. thiophilum A. zeae AZOSPIRILL