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Replacement Character
Specials is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0:U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. U+FFFF <noncharacter-FFFF> not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Basic Multilingual Plane
In the Unicode
Unicode
standard, a plane is a continuous group of 65,536 (216) code points. There are 17 planes, identified by the numbers 0 to 16, which corresponds with the possible values 00–1016 of the first two positions in six position hexadecimal format (U+hhhhhh). The very last code point in Unicode
Unicode
is the last code point in plane 16, U+10FFFF. Plane 0 is the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP), which contains most commonly-used characters. The higher planes 1 through 16 are called "supplementary planes".[1] As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0, six of the planes have assigned code points (characters), and four are named. The limit of 17 planes is due to UTF-16, which can encode 220 code points (16 planes) as pairs of words, plus the BMP as a single word.[2]
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Halfwidth And Fullwidth Forms
In CJK (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) computing, graphic characters are traditionally classed into fullwidth (in Taiwan
Taiwan
and Hong Kong: 全形; in CJK: 全角) and halfwidth (in Taiwan
Taiwan
and Hong Kong: 半形; in CJK: 半角) characters. With fixed-width fonts, a halfwidth character occupies half the width of a fullwidth character, hence the name. In the days of text mode computing, Western characters were normally laid out in a grid on the screen, often 80 columns by 24 or 25 lines. Each character was displayed as a small dot matrix, often about 8 pixels wide, and a SBCS (single byte character set) was generally used to encode characters of western languages. For a number of practical and aesthetic reasons Han characters need to be square, approximately twice as wide as these fixed-width SBCS characters
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Zero-width Joiner
The zero-width joiner (ZWJ) is a non-printing character used in the computerized typesetting of some complex scripts such as the Arabic script or any Indic script. When placed between two characters that would otherwise not be connected, a ZWJ causes them to be printed in their connected forms. In some cases, such as the second Devanagari
Devanagari
example below, the ZWJ follows the second rather than the first character. When a ZWJ is placed between two emoji characters, it can also result in a new form being shown, such as the family emoji, made up of two adult emoji and one or two child emoji.[1] The character's code point is U+200D ZERO WIDTH JOINER (HTML &#8205; · &zwj;). In the InScript keyboard layout for Indian languages, it is typed by the key combination Ctrl+Shift+1
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Zero-width Non-joiner
The zero-width non-joiner (ZWNJ) is a non-printing character used in the computerization of writing systems that make use of ligatures. When placed between two characters that would otherwise be connected into a ligature, a ZWNJ causes them to be printed in their final and initial forms, respectively
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Zero-width Space
The zero-width space (ZWSP) is a non-printing character used in computerized typesetting to indicate word boundaries to text processing systems when using scripts that do not use explicit spacing, or after characters (such as the slash) that are not followed by a visible space but after which there may nevertheless be a line break
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List Of Unicode Characters
This is a list of Unicode characters. As of version 10.0, Unicode contains a repertoire of over 136,000 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets. As it is not technically possible to list all of these characters in a single page, this list is limited to a subset of the most important characters for English-language readers, with links to other pages which list the supplementary characters
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CJK Unified Ideographs
The Chinese, Japanese and Korean (CJK) scripts share a common background, collectively known as CJK characters. In the process called Han unification, the common (shared) characters were identified and named "CJK Unified Ideographs." As of Unicode
Unicode
10.0, Unicode defines a total of 87,882 CJK Unified Ideographs.[1] The terms ideographs or ideograms may be misleading, since the Chinese script is not strictly a pictographic or ideographic system. Historically, Vietnam
Vietnam
used Chinese ideographs too, so sometimes the abbreviation "CJKV" is used
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Combining Character
In digital typography, combining characters are characters that are intended to modify other characters. The most common combining characters in the Latin script are the combining diacritical marks (including combining accents). Unicode
Unicode
also contains many precomposed characters, so that in many cases it is possible to use both combining diacritics and precomposed characters, at the user's or application's choice
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Duplicate Characters In Unicode
Unicode has a certain amount of duplication of characters. These are pairs of single Unicode code points that are canonically equivalent. The reason for this are compatibility issues with legacy systems. Unless two characters are canonically equivalent, they are not "duplicate" in the narrow sense. There is, however, room for disagreement on whether two Unicode characters really encode the same grapheme in cases such as the "micro sign" µ vs. the Greek μ. This should be clearly distinguished from Unicode characters that are rendered as identical glyphs or near-identical glyphs (homoglyphs), either because they are historically cognate (such as Greek Η vs. Latin H) or because of coincidental similarity (such as Greek Ρ vs. Latin P, or Greek Η vs. Cyrillic Н, or the following homoglyphs quadruplet: astronomical symbol for "Sun" ☉, "circled dot operator" ⊙, the Gothic letter 𐍈, the IPA symbol for a bilabial click ʘ).Contents1 Duplicate vs
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Numerals In Unicode
Numerals (often called numbers in Unicode) are characters or sequences of characters that denote a number. The same Arabic-Indic numerals
Arabic-Indic numerals
are used widely in various writing systems throughout the world and all share the same semantics for denoting numbers. However, the graphemes representing these numerals differ widely from one writing system to another. To support these grapheme differences, Unicode
Unicode
includes encodings of these numerals within many of the script blocks
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Script (unicode)
In Unicode, a script is a collection of letters and other written signs used to represent textual information in one or more writing systems.[1] Some scripts support one and only one writing system and language, for example, Armenian. Other scripts support many different writing systems; for example, the Latin script
Latin script
supports English, French, German, Italian, Vietnamese, Latin itself, and several other languages. Some languages make use of multiple alternate writing systems, thus also use several scripts. In Turkish, the Arabic script was used before the 20th century, but transitioned to Latin in the early part of the 20th century. For a list of languages supported by each script see the list of languages by writing system
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Unicode Symbols
In computing, a Unicode
Unicode
symbol is a Unicode
Unicode
character which is not part of a script used to write a natural language, but is nonetheless available for use as part of a text. Many of the symbols are drawn from existing character sets or ISO or other national and international standards. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard states that "The universe of symbols is rich and open-ended."[1] This makes the issue of what symbols to encode and how symbols should be encoded more complicated than the issues surrounding writing systems. Unicode
Unicode
focuses on symbols that make sense in a one-dimensional plain-text context
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Bi-directional Text
Bi-directional text
Bi-directional text
is text containing text in both text directionalities, both right-to-left (RTL or dextrosinistral) and left-to-right (LTR or sinistrodextral). It generally involves text containing different types of alphabets, but may also refer to boustrophedon, which is changing text directionality in each row. Some writing systems of the world, including the Arabic and Hebrew scripts or derived systems such as the Persian, Urdu, and Yiddish scripts, are written in a form known as right-to-left (RTL), in which writing begins at the right-hand side of a page and concludes at the left-hand side. This is different from the left-to-right (LTR) direction used by the dominant Latin script. When LTR text is mixed with RTL in the same paragraph, each type of text is written in its own direction, which is known as bi-directional text
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Soft Hyphen
In computing and typesetting, a soft hyphen (ISO 8859: 0xAD, Unicode U+00AD soft hyphen, HTML: &#173; &shy;) or syllable hyphen (EBCDIC: 0xCA), abbreviated SHY, is a code point reserved in some coded character sets for the purpose of breaking words across lines by inserting visible hyphens
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Unicode Collation Algorithm
The Unicode collation algorithm (UCA) is an algorithm defined in Unicode Technical Report #10, which defines a customizable method to compare two strings. These comparisons can then be used to collate or sort text in any writing system and language that can be represented with Unicode. Unicode Technical Report #10 also specifies the Default Unicode Collation Element Table (DUCET). This datafile specifies the default collation ordering. The DUCET is customizable for different languages. Some such customisations can be found in Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR). An important open source implementation of UCA is included with the International Components for Unicode, ICU. ICU also supports tailoring and the collation tailorings from CLDR are included in ICU
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