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Renewable Energy In Germany
Germany
Germany
has been called "the world's first major renewable energy economy".[1][2] Renewable energy
Renewable energy
in Germany
Germany
is mainly based on wind, solar and biomass. Germany
Germany
had the world's largest photovoltaic installed capacity until 2014, and as of 2016, it is third with 40 GW. It is also the world's third country by installed wind power capacity, at 50 GW, and second for offshore wind, with over 4 GW. More than 23,000 wind turbines and 1.4 million solar PV systems are distributed all over the country.[3][4][when?] According to official figures, around 370,000 people were employed in the renewable energy sector in 2010, particularly in small and medium-sized companies.[5] This is an increase of around 8% compared to 2009 (around 339,500 jobs), and well over twice the number of jobs in 2004 (160,500)
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Biogas
Biogas
Biogas
is the mixture of gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas
Biogas
can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste. Biogas
Biogas
is a renewable energy source. Biogas
Biogas
is produced by anaerobic digestion with methanogen or anaerobic organisms, which digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable materials.[1] This closed system is called an anaerobic digester, biodigester or a bioreactor.[2] Biogas
Biogas
is primarily methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen
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EWEA
WindEurope, formerly the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), is an association based in Brussels, promoting the use of wind power in Europe
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Hydroelectricity
Hydroelectricity
Hydroelectricity
is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015 hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity,[1] and was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower
Hydropower
is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China
China
is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh
TWh
of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S
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Net Generation
Net generation is the amount of electricity generated by a power plant that is transmitted and distributed for consumer use. Net generation is less than the total gross power generation as some power produced is consumed within the plant itself to power auxiliary equipment such as pumps, motors and pollution control devices. Thusnet generation = gross generation − usage within the plant (a.k.a. in-house loads)References[edit]See also[edit]Energy portalElectrical generators Gross generationExternal links[edit]Measuring power generationThis thermodynamics-related article is a stub
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Directive On Electricity Production From Renewable Energy Sources
The Directive on Electricity Production from Renewable Energy Sources 2001/77/EC is a European Union Directive for promoting renewable energy use in electricity generation. It is popularly known as the RES Directive. The directive, which took effect in October 2001, sets national indicative targets for renewable energy production from individual member states. As the name implies, the EU does not strictly enforce these targets. However, The European Commission
European Commission
monitors the progress of the member states of the European Union – and will, if necessary, propose mandatory targets for those who miss their goals. These objectives contribute toward achieving the overall indicative EU targets, which are listed in the white paper on renewable sources of energy
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European Union
The European Union
European Union
(EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe.[11] Its members have a combined area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one
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Renewable Electricity
Renewable energy
Renewable energy
is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.[2] Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.[3] Based on REN21's 2016 report, renewables contributed 19.2% to humans' global energy consumption and 23.7% to their generation of electricity in 2014 and 2015, respectively. This energy consumption is divided as 8.9% coming from traditional biomass, 4.2% as heat energy (modern biomass, geothermal and solar heat), 3.9% hydro electricity and 2.2% is electricity from wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass
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Angela Merkel
Angela Dorothea Merkel (/ˈmɜːrkəl, ˈmɛərkəl/, German: [aŋˈɡeːla ˈmɛɐ̯kl̩];[a] née Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany
Germany
since 2005. She served as the leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 2000 to 2018.[10] Merkel has been widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union,[11] the most powerful woman in the world,[12] and, following the election of Donald Trump
Donald Trump
as US President, by many commentators as the new leader of the Free World.[13][14][15][16][17] Merkel was born in Hamburg
Hamburg
in then- West Germany
West Germany
and moved to East Germany
Germany
as an infant when her father, a Lutheran
Lutheran
clergyman, received a pastorate in Perleberg
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Federal Ministry For Economic Affairs And Energy
The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy
Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy
(German: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie), abbreviated BMWi, is a cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany. It was previously known as the "Ministry of Economy"
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Primary Energy
World total primary energy supply of 155,505 TWh (or 13,371 Mtoe) by fuels in 2012 (IEA, 2014)[1]:6,8   Oil (31.4%)   Coal/Peat/Shale (29.0%)   Natural Gas (21.3%)   Biofuels and waste (10.0%)   Nuclear (4.8%)   Hydro (2.4%)   Others (Renewables) (1.1%)World total primary energy supply of 155,505 TWh (or 13,371 Mtoe) by region in 2012 (IEA, 2014)[1]   OECD (39.2%)   Middle East (5.1%)   Non-OECD Europe /Eurasia (8.9%)   China (21.8%)   Asia (w/o China) (12.3%)   Non-OECD Americas (4.6%)   Africa (5.5%)   Bunkers (2.6%) Primary energy
Primary energy
(PE) is an energy form found in nature that has not been subjected to any human engineered conversion or transformation process. It is energy contained in raw fuels, and other forms of energy received as input to a system
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Petajoule
The joule (/dʒuːl/); (symbol: J), is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.[1] It is equal to the energy transferred to (or work done on) an object when a force of one newton acts on that object in the direction of its motion through a distance of one metre (1 newton metre or N⋅m). It is also the energy dissipated as heat when an electric current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second
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Megawatts
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power. In the International System of Units (SI) it is defined as a derived unit of 1 joule per second,[1] and is used to quantify the rate of energy transfer
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Biofuel
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary processes from biomass, rather than a fuel produced by the very slow geological processes involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as oil. Since biomass technically can be used as a fuel directly (e.g. wood logs), some people use the terms biomass and biofuel interchangeably. More often than not however, the word biomass simply denotes the biological raw material the fuel is made of, or some form of thermally/chemically altered solid end product, like torrefied pellets or briquettes. The word biofuel is usually reserved for liquid or gaseous fuels, used for transportation. The EIA (U.S. Energy Information Administration) follow this naming practice.[1] If the biomass used in the production of biofuel can regrow quickly, the fuel is generally considered to be a form of renewable energy. Biofuel
Biofuel
logo Biofuels can be produced from plants (i.e
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Solar Power
Solar power
Solar power
is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination. Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaic
Photovoltaic
cells convert light into an electric current using the photovoltaic effect.[1] Photovoltaics
Photovoltaics
were initially solely used as a source of electricity for small and medium-sized applications, from the calculator powered by a single solar cell to remote homes powered by an off-grid rooftop PV system. Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s
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Solar Power In The European Union
Solar energy
Solar energy
in the European Union
European Union
consists of photovoltaics (PV) and solar thermal energy. In 2010, the €2.6 billion European solar heating sector consisted of small and medium
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