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Remote Operations Center
The OFFICE OF TAILORED ACCESS OPERATIONS (TAO) is a cyber-warfare intelligence-gathering unit of the National Security Agency (NSA). It has been active since at least circa 1998. TAO identifies, monitors, infiltrates, and gathers intelligence on computer systems being used by entities foreign to the United States. The NSA terms these activities "computer network exploitation" . TAO is reportedly "now the largest and arguably the most important component of the NSA's huge Signals Intelligence Directorate (SID) ( SIGINT
SIGINT
), consisting of more than 1,000 military and civilian computer hackers, intelligence analysts, targeting specialists, computer hardware and software designers, and electrical engineers"
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XKeyscore
XKEYSCORE or XKEYSCORE (abbreviated as XKS) is a formerly secret computer system first used by the United States National Security Agency for searching and analyzing global Internet data, which it collects on a daily basis. The program has been shared with other spy agencies including the Australian Signals Directorate
Australian Signals Directorate
, Canada's Communications Security Establishment , New Zealand's Government Communications Security Bureau , Britain's Government Communications Headquarters and the German Bundesnachrichtendienst . The program's purpose was publicly revealed in July 2013 by Edward Snowden in The Sydney Morning Herald and O Globo
O Globo
newspapers. The codename was already public knowledge because it is mentioned in earlier articles, and like many other codenames can also be seen in job postings, and in the online resumes of employees
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Cyber-warfare
CYBERWARFARE involves the battlespace use and targeting of computers and networks in warfare . It involves both offensive and defensive operations pertaining to the threat of cyberattacks , espionage and sabotage. There has been controversy over whether such operations can duly be called "war". Nevertheless, nations have been developing their capabilities and engaged in cyberwarfare either as an aggressor, defendant, or both
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National Security Agency
The NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense , under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence . The NSA is responsible for global monitoring, collection, and processing of information and data for foreign intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, specializing in a discipline known as signals intelligence (SIGINT). The NSA is also tasked with the protection of U.S. communications networks and information systems. The NSA relies on a variety of measures to accomplish its mission, the majority of which are clandestine . Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II , it was officially formed as the NSA by President Harry S. Truman in 1952. Since then, it has become one of the largest U.S. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget.
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Computer Network Operations
COMPUTER NETWORK OPERATIONS (CNO) is a broad term that has both military and civilian application. Conventional wisdom is that information is power, and more and more of the information necessary to make decisions is digitized and conveyed over an ever-expanding network of computers and other electronic devices. Computer network operations are deliberate actions taken to leverage and optimize these networks to improve human endeavor and enterprise or, in warfare, to gain information superiority and deny the enemy this enabling capability. CONTENTS * 1 CNO in the military domain * 2 Types of Military CNO * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CNO IN THE MILITARY DOMAINWithin the United States military domain, CNO is considered one of five core capabilities under Information Operations (IO) Information Warfare
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SIGINT
SIGNALS INTELLIGENCE (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (COMMUNICATIONS INTELLIGENCE—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (ELECTRONIC INTELLIGENCE—abbreviated to ELINT). Signals intelligence is a subset of intelligence collection management . As sensitive information is often encrypted , signals intelligence in turn involves the use of cryptanalysis to decipher the messages. Traffic analysis —the study of who is signaling whom and in what quantity—is also used to derive information
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Edward Snowden
EDWARD JOSEPH SNOWDEN (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional , former Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013 without authorization. His disclosures revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many run by the NSA and the Five Eyes Intelligence Alliance with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments. In 2013, Snowden was hired by an NSA contractor, Booz Allen Hamilton , after previous employment with Dell
Dell
and the CIA
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The Washington Post
_THE WASHINGTON POST_ is an American daily newspaper . It is the most widely circulated newspaper published in Washington, D.C. , and was founded on December 6, 1877, making it the area's oldest extant newspaper. In 2017, it adopted the slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness". Located in the capital city of the United States, the newspaper has a particular emphasis on national politics. Daily editions are printed for the District of Columbia , Maryland , and Virginia . The newspaper is published as a broadsheet , with photographs printed both in color and in black and white. The newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes . This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008 , the second-highest number ever awarded to a single newspaper in one year, second only to _ The New York Times _' seven awards in 2002
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Fort Meade, Maryland
FORT MEADE is a census-designated place (CDP) in Anne Arundel County , Maryland , United States
United States
. The population was 9,327 at the 2010 census. It is the home to the National Security Agency , Central Security Service , United States
United States
Cyber Command and the Defense Information Systems Agency , which are located on the U.S. Army post Fort George G. Meade . CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Adjacent CDPs and communities * 3 Bedroom towns * 4 Climate * 5 Demographics * 6 Education * 7 Transportation * 8 Notable residents * 9 References GEOGRAPHYFort Meade is located at 39°6′18″N 76°44′29″W / 39.10500°N 76.74139°W / 39.10500; -76.74139 (39.105015, −76.741260) in northwestern Anne Arundel County
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Texas Cryptologic Center
The NSA/CSS TEXAS CRYPTOLOGIC CENTER (TCC), also known as the TEXAS CRYPTOLOGY CENTER, TEXAS CRYPTOGRAPHIC CENTER or NSA TEXAS, is a satellite campus at the Medina Annex, Lackland Air Force Base , San Antonio , Texas
Texas
, operated by the U.S. National Security Agency . It is adjacent to the former Medina National Stockpile Site . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe TCC site was formerly known as the Medina Regional Security Operations Center (RSOC), which includes the Regional Technical Control and Analysis Element (TCAE). The Medina RSOC was known to house 2200 Army
Army
, Marine Corps
Marine Corps
, Navy
Navy
, Air Force and civilian Department of Defense employees, including two squadrons of the 70th Intelligence Wing —the 543rd Support Squadron and the 93rd Intelligence Squadron
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USS Jimmy Carter
USS JIMMY CARTER (SSN-23) is the third and last Seawolf-class submarine in the United States Navy . She is named for Jimmy Carter , the 39th President of the United States ; Carter is the only President who had qualified in submarines , having served as a Communications Officer, Sonar Officer, Electronics Officer, Weapons Officer, and Supply Officer while on board USS Pomfret . Jimmy Carter is one of the few ships of the United States Navy (and only the third submarine) to have been named for a person who was alive at the time of the ship\'s naming , and the only submarine to be named for a living former president. CONTENTS * 1 Ship history * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links SHIP HISTORYThe contract to build Jimmy Carter was awarded to the Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics Corporation in Groton, Connecticut , on 29 June 1996, and her keel was laid on 5 December 1998
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NSA ANT Catalog
The NSA ANT CATALOG is a 50-page classified document listing technology available to the United States
United States
National Security Agency (NSA) Tailored Access Operations (TAO) by the Advanced Network Technology (ANT) Division to aid in cyber surveillance. Most devices are described as already operational and available to US nationals and members of the Five Eyes alliance. According to Der Spiegel , which released the catalog to the public on December 30, 2013, "The list reads like a mail-order catalog, one from which other NSA employees can order technologies from the ANT division for tapping their targets' data." The document was created in 2008
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Classified Information
CLASSIFIED INFORMATION is material that a government body claims is sensitive information that requires protection of confidentiality, integrity, or availability. Access is restricted by law or regulation to particular groups of people, and mishandling can incur criminal penalties and loss of respect. A formal security clearance is often required to handle classified documents or access classified data. The clearance process usually requires a satisfactory background investigation. Documents and other information assets are typically marked with one of several (hierarchical) levels of sensitivity—e.g. restricted, confidential, secret and top secret. The choice of level is often based on an impact assessment; governments often have their own set of rules which include the levels, rules on determining the level for an information asset, and rules on how to protect information classified at each level. This often includes security clearances for personnel handling the information
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America _ Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos _ * " E pluribus unum " (
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Five Eyes
The FIVE EYES, often abbreviated as FVEY, is an intelligence alliance comprising Australia
Australia
, Canada
Canada
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States
United States
. These countries, with a similar common law legal inheritance, are parties to the multilateral UKUSA Agreement
UKUSA Agreement
, a treaty for joint cooperation in signals intelligence . The origins of the FVEY can be traced back to the post-World War II period, when the Atlantic Charter
Atlantic Charter
was issued by the Allies to lay out their goals for a post-war world
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Der Spiegel
_DER SPIEGEL_ (German pronunciation: , lit. _"The Mirror"_) is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg
Hamburg
. It is one of Europe's largest publications of its kind, with a weekly circulation of 840,000. It was founded in 1947 by John Seymour Chaloner (de), a British army officer, and Rudolf Augstein , a former Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
radio operator who was recognized in 2000 by the International Press Institute as one of the fifty World Press Freedom Heroes . _ Spiegel Online _, the online sibling of _Der Spiegel_, was launched in 1994 with an independent editorial staff. Typically, the magazine has a content to advertising ratio of 2:1. _Der Spiegel_ is known in German-speaking countries mostly for its investigative journalism . It has played a key role in uncovering many political scandals such as the Spiegel scandal in 1962 and the Flick affair in the 1980s
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