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Relative Humidity
Relative humidity
Relative humidity
(RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity
Relative humidity
depends on temperature and the pressure of the system of interest
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Goff–Gratch Equation
In mathematics, an equation is a statement of an equality containing one or more variables. Solving the equation consists of determining which values of the variables make the equality true. Variables are also called unknowns and the values of the unknowns which satisfy the equality are called solutions of the equation. There are two kinds of equations: identities and conditional equations. An identity is true for all values of the variable. A conditional equation is true for only particular values of the variables.[1][2] An equation is written as two expressions, connected by a equals sign ("="). The expressions on the two sides of the equals sign are called the "left-hand side" and "right-hand side" of the equation The most common type of equation is an algebraic equation, in which the two sides are algebraic expressions. Each side of an algebraic equation will contain one or more terms
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Partial Pressure
In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.[1] The total pressure of an ideal gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture. It relies on the following isotherm relation: V x V t o t = p x p t o t = n x n t o t displaystyle frac V_ x V_ tot = frac p_ x p_ tot = frac n_ x n_ tot Vx is the partial volume of any individual gas component (X) Vtot is the total volume of the gas mixture px is the partial pressure of
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Antoine Equation
The Antoine equation is a class of semi-empirical correlations describing the relation between vapor pressure and temperature for pure components. The Antoine equation is derived from the Clausius–Clapeyron relation. The equation was presented in 1888 by the French engineer Louis Charles Antoine (fr) (1825–1897).[1]Contents1 The equation 2 Validity range 3 Example parameters3.1 Example calculation4 Units 5 Extension of the Antoine equations 6 Sources for Antoine equation parameters 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksThe equation[edit] log 10 ⁡ p = A − B C + T . displaystyle log _ 10 p=A- frac B C+T
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Carburetor
A carburetor (American English) or carburettor (British English; see spelling differences) is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper ratio for combustion. It is sometimes colloquially shortened to carb in the UK and North America or carby in Australia.[1] To carburate or carburet (and thus carburation or carburetion, respectively) means to mix the air and fuel or to equip (an engine) with a carburetor for that purpose. Carburetors have largely been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection
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Pressure
Pressure
Pressure
(symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure
Gauge pressure
(also spelled gage pressure)[a] is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit
SI unit
of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre; similarly, the pound-force per square inch (psi) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and US customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as ​1⁄760 of this
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Environmental Control System
The environmental control system (ECS) of an aircraft provides air supply, thermal control and cabin pressurization for the crew and passengers. Avionics
Avionics
cooling, smoke detection, and fire suppression are also commonly considered part of an aircraft's environmental control system.Contents1 Overview 2 Air supply 3 Cold air unit 4 Ram air system 5 Air distribution 6 Pressurization 7 Health concerns 8 References 9 External linksOverview[edit] The systems described below are specific to current production Boeing airliners, although the details are essentially identical for passenger jets from Airbus
Airbus
and other companies
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Spacecraft
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. Spacecraft
Spacecraft
are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, earth observation, meteorology, navigation, space colonization, planetary exploration, and transportation of humans and cargo. On a sub-orbital spaceflight, a spacecraft enters space and then returns to the surface, without having gone into an orbit. For orbital spaceflights, spacecraft enter closed orbits around the Earth
Earth
or around other celestial bodies. Spacecraft
Spacecraft
used for human spaceflight carry people on board as crew or passengers from start or on orbit (space stations) only, whereas those used for robotic space missions operate either autonomously or telerobotically. Robotic spacecraft used to support scientific research are space probes. Robotic spacecraft that remain in orbit around a planetary body are artificial satellites
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Submersible
A submersible is a small vehicle designed to operate underwater. The term submersible is often used to differentiate from other underwater vehicles known as submarines, in that a submarine is a fully autonomous craft, capable of renewing its own power and breathing air, whereas a submersible is usually supported by a surface vessel, platform, shore team or sometimes a larger submarine. In common usage by the general public, however, the word submarine may be used to describe a craft that is by the technical definition actually a submersible
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Pressure Vessel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. Pressure
Pressure
vessels can be dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the history of their development and operation. Consequently, pressure vessel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel varies from country to country. Design involves parameters such as maximum safe operating pressure and temperature, safety factor, corrosion allowance and minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture). Construction is tested using nondestructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests. Hydrostatic tests use water, but pneumatic tests use air or another gas
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Short Circuit
A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance. This results in an excessive amount of current flowing into the circuit. The electrical opposite of a short circuit is an "open circuit", which is an infinite resistance between two nodes. It is common to misuse "short circuit" to describe any electrical malfunction, regardless of the actual problem.Contents1 Definition 2 Examples 3 Damage 4 Related concepts 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDefinition[edit] A short circuit is an abnormal connection between two nodes of an electric circuit intended to be at different voltages. This results in an electric current limited only by the Thévenin equivalent resistance of the rest of the network which can cause circuit damage, overheating, fire or explosion
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Windshield
The windshield (North America) or windscreen ( Commonwealth
Commonwealth
English) of an aircraft, car, bus, motorbike or tram is the front window. Modern windshields are generally made of laminated safety glass, a type of treated glass, which consists of two (typically) curved sheets of glass with a plastic layer laminated between them for safety, and are bonded into the window frame. Motorbike
Motorbike
windshields are often made of high-impact polycarbonate or acrylic plastic.Contents1 Usage 2 Safety 3 Other aspects 4 Terminology 5 Repair of stone-chip and crack damage5.1 Size and depth 5.2 Type 5.3 Location6 Replacement 7 Disposal 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksUsage[edit]Split and raked windshield on a 1952 DeSoto. Note the panes of glass are flat.Windshields protect the vehicle's occupants from wind and flying debris such as dust, insects, and rocks, and provide an aerodynamically formed window towards the front
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Vehicle
A vehicle (from Latin: vehiculum[1]) is a mobile machine that transports people or cargo. Typical vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor vehicles (motorcycles, cars, trucks, buses), railed vehicles (trains, trams), watercraft (ships, boats), aircraft and spacecraft.[2] Land vehicles are classified broadly by what is used to apply steering and drive forces against the ground: wheeled, tracked, railed or skied. ISO 3833-1977 is the standard, also internationally used in legislation, for road vehicles types, terms and definitions.[3]Contents1 History 2 Most popular vehicles 3 Locomotion3.1 Energy source 3.2 Motors and engines 3.3 Converting energy to work 3.4 Friction4 Control4.1 Steering 4.2 Stopping5 Legislation5.1 European Union 5.2 Licensing 5.3 Registration 5.4 Mandatory safety equipment6 Right-of-way 7 Safety 8 See also 9 ReferencesHistory[edit]This article may require cleanup to meet's quality standards
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Rhinovirus
The rhinovirus (from the Greek ῥίς rhis "nose", gen ῥινός rhinos "of the nose", and the Latin vīrus) is the most common viral infectious agent in humans and is the predominant cause of the common cold. Rhinovirus infection proliferates in temperatures between 33–35 °C (91–95 °F), the temperatures found in the nose. Rhinoviruses is a genus within the Picornaviridae family of viruses. There are currently around 160 recognized types of human rhinoviruses that differ according to their surface proteins (serotypes).[1] They are lytic in nature and are among the smallest viruses, with diameters of about 30 nanometers
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Heat Transfer
Heat
Heat
transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems. Heat
Heat
transfer is classified into various mechanisms, such as thermal conduction, thermal convection, thermal radiation, and transfer of energy by phase changes. Engineers also consider the transfer of mass of differing chemical species, either cold or hot, to achieve heat transfer. While these mechanisms have distinct characteristics, they often occur simultaneously in the same system. Heat
Heat
conduction, also called diffusion, is the direct microscopic exchange of kinetic energy of particles through the boundary between two systems. When an object is at a different temperature from another body or its surroundings, heat flows so that the body and the surroundings reach the same temperature, at which point they are in thermal equilibrium
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Waste Heat
Waste
Waste
heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work. All such processes give off some waste heat as a fundamental result of the laws of thermodynamics. Waste
Waste
heat has lower utility (or in thermodynamics lexicon a lower exergy or higher entropy) than the original energy source
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