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Reflex
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.[1][2] A reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs which can act on an impulse before that impulse reaches the brain. The reflex is then an automatic response to a stimulus that does not receive or need conscious thought.[3]Contents1 Human reflexes1.1 Tendon reflex 1.2 Reflexes involving cranial nerves 1.3 Reflexes usually only observed in human infants 1.4 Other reflexes 1.5 Grading2 See also 3 ReferencesHuman reflexes[edit] Myotatic reflexes The myotatic reflexes (also known as deep tendon reflexes), provide information on the integrity of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
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Sacral Spinal Nerve 1
The sacral spinal nerve 1 (S1) is a spinal nerve of the sacral segment.[1] It originates from the spinal column from below the 1st body of the sacrumSacrum, showing bodies in center.Muscles[edit] S1 supplies many muscles, either directly or through nerves originating from S1. They are not innervated with S1 as single origin, but partly by S1 and partly by other spinal nerves
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Lumbar Spinal Nerve 3
The lumbar nerves are the five pairs of spinal nerves emerging from the lumbar vertebrae. They are divided into posterior and anterior divisions.Contents1 Structure1.1 Posterior divisions 1.2 Anterior divisions2 Divisions2.1 First lumbar nerve 2.2 Second lumbar nerve 2.3 Third lumbar nerve 2.4 Fourth lumbar nerve 2.5 Fifth lumbar nerve3 Function 4 Additional images 5 See also 6 ReferencesStructure[edit] Main article: Spinal nerves The lumbar nerves are spinal nerves which arise from either side of the spinal cord. The lumbar spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord between each pair of spinal vertebrae and travel through the intervertebral foramen
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Lumbar Spinal Nerve 4
The lumbar nerves are the five pairs of spinal nerves emerging from the lumbar vertebrae. They are divided into posterior and anterior divisions.Contents1 Structure1.1 Posterior divisions 1.2 Anterior divisions2 Divisions2.1 First lumbar nerve 2.2 Second lumbar nerve 2.3 Third lumbar nerve 2.4 Fourth lumbar nerve 2.5 Fifth lumbar nerve3 Function 4 Additional images 5 See also 6 ReferencesStructure[edit] Main article: Spinal nerves The lumbar nerves are spinal nerves which arise from either side of the spinal cord. The lumbar spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord between each pair of spinal vertebrae and travel through the intervertebral foramen
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Cervical Spinal Nerve 8
The cervical spinal nerve 8 (C8) is a spinal nerve of the cervical segment.[1] It originates from the spinal column from below the cervical vertebra 7 (C7).Contents1 Innervation1.1 Sensory 1.2 Motor1.2.1 Trunk 1.2.2 Upper arm 1.2.3 Forearm 1.2.4 Hand2 Additional Images 3 ReferencesInnervation[edit] The C8 nerve forms part of the radial and ulnar nerves via the brachial plexus, and therefore has motor and sensory function in the upper limb. Sensory[edit] The C8 nerve receives sensory afferents from the C8 dermatome. This consists of all the skin on the little finger, and continuing up slightly past the wrist on the palmar and dorsal aspects of the hand and forearm.[2] Clinically a test of the pad of the little finger is often used to assess C8 integrity.[3] Motor[edit] The C8 nerve contributes to the motor innervation of many of the muscles in the trunk and upper limb
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Sacral Spinal Nerve 2
The sacral spinal nerve 2 (S2) is a spinal nerve of the sacral segment.[1] It originates from the spinal column from below the 2nd body of the sacrumSacrum, showing bodies in center.Muscles[edit] S2 supplies many muscles, either directly or through nerves originating from S2. They are not innervated with S2 as single origin, but partly by S2 and partly by other spinal nerves. They are most commonly known to govern the toes
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Cervical Spinal Nerve 7
The cervical spinal nerve 7 (C7) is a spinal nerve of the cervical segment.[1] It originates from the spinal column from above the cervical vertebra 7 (C7). It runs through the interspace between the C6 and C7 vertebrae. Additional Images[edit]Cervical spinal nerve 7References[edit]^ American Medical Association Nervous System -- Groups of Nervesv t eSpinal nervesCervicalC1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8anteriorCervical plexus Brachial plexusposteriorPosterior branches of cervical nerves Suboccipital – C1 Greater occipital – C2 Third occipital – C3ThoracicT1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12anteriorIntercostal Intercostobrachial – T2 Thoraco-abdominal nerves – T7–T11 Subcostal – T12posteriorPosterior branches of thoracic nervesLumbarL1 L2 L3 L4 L5anteriorLumbar plexus Lumbosacral trunkposteriorPosterior branches of the lu
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Cervical Spinal Nerve 6
The cervical spinal nerve 6 (C6) is a spinal nerve of the cervical segment.[1] It originates from the spinal column from above the cervical vertebra 6 (C6). The C6 nerve root shares a common branch from C5, and has a role in innervating many muscles of the rotator cuff and distal arm,[2] including:Subclavius Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Biceps Brachii Brachialis Deltoid Teres Minor Brachioradialis Serratus Anterior Subscapularis Pectoralis Major Coracobrachialis Teres Major Supinator Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Latissimus DorsiDamage to the C6 motor neuron, by way of impingement, ischemia, trauma, or degeneration of nerve tissue, can cause denervation of one or more of the associated muscles
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Cervical Spinal Nerve 5
The cervical spinal nerve 5 (C5) is a spinal nerve of the cervical segment.[1] It originates from the spinal column from above the cervical vertebra 5 (C5)
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Reflectory (album)
Reflectory, is an album by baritone saxophonist Pepper Adams which was recorded in 1978 and originally released on the Muse label.[1][2][3][4]Contents1 Reception 2 Track listing 3 Personnel 4 ReferencesReception[edit]Professional ratingsReview scoresSource RatingAllmusic [5]The Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide [6]The Allmusic review by Ken Dryden states "Adams' approach to the baritone sax is sometimes a bit more aggressive and less melodic than Gerry Mulligan, which results in occasional inadvertent reed squeaks in his tricky opener, "Reflectory." Better is the outspoken yet still lovely treatment of Duke Ellington's "Sophisticated Lady." The most surprising track is his rapid-fire arrangement of the ballad "That's All," in which Hanna takes top solo honors
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Peripheral Nervous System
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS). The PNS consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord.[1] The main function of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs, essentially serving as a relay between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body.[2] Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the vertebral column and skull, or by the blood–brain barrier, which leaves it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. In the somatic nervous system, the cranial nerves are part of the PNS with the exception of the optic nerve (cranial nerve II), along with the retina. The second cranial nerve is not a true peripheral nerve but a tract of the diencephalon.[3] Cranial nerve
Cranial nerve
ganglia originated in the CNS
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Newborn Babies
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human. The term may also be used to refer to juveniles of other organisms. A newborn is, in colloquial use, an infant who is only hours, days, or up to one month old. In medical contexts, newborn or neonate (from Latin, neonatus, newborn) refers to an infant in the first 28 days after birth;[1] the term applies to premature, full term, and postmature infants; before birth, the term "fetus" is used. The term "infant" is typically applied to young children between one month and one year of age; however, definitions may vary and may include children up to two years of age. When a human child learns to walk, the term "toddler" may be used instead. In British English, an infant school is for children aged between four and seven
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Muscular Defense
Muscular defense is a reflex of the abdominal muscles to contract upon mechanical force to the abdomen, and serves as protection. It is a visceromotor reflex, since the parietal peritoneum and viscera are involved in generating the reflex.[1] See also[edit]Abdominal guardingReferences[edit]^ A. V. Livshits. The receptor field of reflex contraction of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall in man. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. Volume 57, Number 4 / April, 1964This muscle article is a stub
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Lumbar Spinal Nerve 2
The lumbar nerves are the five pairs of spinal nerves emerging from the lumbar vertebrae. They are divided into posterior and anterior divisions.Contents1 Structure1.1 Posterior divisions 1.2 Anterior divisions2 Divisions2.1 First lumbar nerve 2.2 Second lumbar nerve 2.3 Third lumbar nerve 2.4 Fourth lumbar nerve 2.5 Fifth lumbar nerve3 Function 4 Additional images 5 See also 6 ReferencesStructure[edit] Main article: Spinal nerves The lumbar nerves are spinal nerves which arise from either side of the spinal cord. The lumbar spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord between each pair of spinal vertebrae and travel through the intervertebral foramen
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Stimulus (physiology)
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment. The ability of an organism or organ to respond to external stimuli is called sensitivity. When a stimulus is applied to a sensory receptor, it normally elicits or influences a reflex via stimulus transduction. These sensory receptors can receive information from outside the body, as in touch receptors found in the skin or light receptors in the eye, as well as from inside the body, as in chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors. An internal stimulus is often the first component of a homeostatic control system. External stimuli are capable of producing systemic responses throughout the body, as in the fight-or-flight response
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Cough Reflex
The cough reflex has both sensory (afferent) mainly via the vagus nerve and motor (efferent) components. Pulmonary irritant receptors (cough receptors) in the epithelium of the respiratory tract are sensitive to both mechanical and chemical stimuli
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