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Red Summer (1919)
The RED SUMMER refers to the summer and early autumn of 1919, which was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the United States, as a result of race riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities and one rural county. In most instances, whites attacked African Americans . In some cases many black people fought back, notably in Chicago and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
The highest number of fatalities occurred in the rural area around Elaine, Arkansas
Elaine, Arkansas
, where five whites and an estimated 100–240 black people were killed; Chicago and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
had 38 and 15 deaths, respectively, and many more injured, with extensive property damage in Chicago
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George Edmund Haynes
GEORGE EDMUND HAYNES (1881-1959/1960) was a sociology scholar and federal civil servant, a co-founder and first executive director of the National Urban League , serving 1911 to 1918. A graduate of Fisk University , he earned a master's degree at Yale University, and was the first African American to earn a doctorate degree from Columbia University
Columbia University
, where he completed one in sociology. During the Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
administration, Haynes was appointed in 1918 as director of the newly established Division of Negro Economics in the Department of Labor , as part of an effort by the Democratic administration to build support from blacks for the war effort. (They had been disfranchised by Democratic-dominated state governments across the South around the turn of the 20th century). Haynes was one of the first analysts to write about black labor economics
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Woodrow Wilson
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES * Presidency -------------------------FIRST TERM * 1912 campaign * Election * 1st Inauguration * Women\'s suffrage * Suffrage
Suffrage
parade * The New Freedom * Silent Sentinels *
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United States Department Of Labor
The UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government responsible for occupational safety , wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, and some economic statistics; many U.S. states also have such departments. The department is headed by the U.S. Secretary of Labor . The purpose of the Department of Labor is to foster, promote, and develop the welfare of the wage earners, job seekers, and retirees of the United States; improve working conditions; advance opportunities for profitable employment; and assure work-related benefits and rights. In carrying out this mission, the Department of Labor administers and enforces more than 180 federal laws and thousands of federal regulations. These mandates and the regulations that implement them cover many workplace activities for about 10 million employers and 125 million workers
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Chicago Daily News
The _CHICAGO DAILY NEWS_ was an afternoon daily newspaper published between 1876 and 1978 in Chicago, Illinois
Illinois
, United States. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Independent newspaper * 1.2 Knight Newspapers and Field Enterprises * 2 Pulitzer Prizes * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links HISTORY Daily News Building The _Daily News_ was founded by Melville E. Stone , Percy Meggy, and William Dougherty in 1875 and began publishing early the next year. It strove for mass readership in contrast with its primary competitor, the _ Chicago
Chicago
Tribune _, which was more influential among the city's elites; for many years, the _Daily News_ boasted a 1¢ newsstand price. Byron Andrews , fresh out of Hobart College, was one of the first reporters. Victor F
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W. E. B. Du Bois
WILLIAM EDWARD BURGHARDT "W. E. B." DU BOIS (pronounced /duːˈbɔɪz/ doo-BOYZ ; February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an American sociologist , historian , civil rights activist , Pan-Africanist , author, writer and editor. Born in Great Barrington , Massachusetts, Du Bois grew up in a relatively tolerant and integrated community. After completing graduate work at the University of Berlin and Harvard
Harvard
, where he was the first African American
African American
to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology and economics at Atlanta
Atlanta
University . Du Bois was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. Du Bois rose to national prominence as the leader of the Niagara Movement , a group of African-American activists who wanted equal rights for blacks
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Labor Rights
LABOR RIGHTS or WORKERS\' RIGHTS are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers , usually obtained under labor and employment law . In general, these rights' debates have to do with negotiating workers' pay, benefits, and safe working conditions . One of the most central of these rights is the right to unionize . Unions take advantage of collective bargaining and industrial action to increase their members' wages and otherwise change their working situation. Labor rights can also take in the form of worker\'s control and worker\'s self management in which workers have a democratic voice in decision and policy making. The labor movement initially focused on this "right to unionize", but attention has shifted elsewhere. Critics of the labor rights movement claim that regulation promoted by labor rights activists may limit opportunities for work
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Racial Equality
RACIAL EQUALITY occurs when people of all races are given equal opportunity. In other words, by ignoring their racial physical characteristics or color, and giving everyone legally, morally, and politically equal opportunity. In today's society, there is more diversity and more integration among races. Initially, attaining equality has been difficult for African Americans , Asians
Asians
, and Latinos , especially in schools. However, in the United States
United States
, racial equality, has become a law that regardless of what race an individual is, they will receive equal treatment, opportunity, education, employment, and politics
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Price Controls
PRICE CONTROLS are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market. The intent behind implementing such controls can stem from the desire to maintain affordability of goods, to prevent during shortages, and to slow inflation, or, alternatively, to ensure a minimum income for providers of certain goods or a minimum wage . There are two primary forms of price control, a price ceiling , the maximum price that can be charged, and a price floor , the minimum price that can be charged. Historically, price controls have often been imposed as part of a larger incomes policy package also employing wage controls and other regulatory elements. Although price controls are sometimes used by governments, economists usually agree that price controls don't accomplish what they are intended to do and are generally to be avoided
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Russian Revolution (1917)
The RUSSIAN REVOLUTION was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar ; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'soviets ') which contended for authority. In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was toppled and all power was given to the soviets
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Bolshevik
The BOLSHEVIKS, originally also BOLSHEVISTS or BOLSHEVIKI (Russian : большевики, большевик (singular); IPA: ; derived from большинство _bol'shinstvo_, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903. The RSDLP was a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898 in Minsk in Belarus to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire into one party. In the Second Party Congress vote, the Bolsheviks won on the majority of important issues, hence their name. They ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
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NAACP
The NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial organization to advance justice for African Americans by W. E. B. Du Bois , Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey . Its mission in the 21st century is "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination." Their national initiatives included political lobbying, publicity efforts, and litigation strategies developed by their legal team. The group enlarged its mission in the late 20th century by considering issues such as police misconduct, the status of black foreign refugees, and questions of economic development. Its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term _colored people ,_ referring to people of some African ancestry
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United States Senate Committee On The Judiciary
The UNITED STATES SENATE COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY, informally the SENATE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE, is a standing committee of the United States Senate , of the United States Congress . The Judiciary Committee, with 20 members, is in charge of conducting hearings prior to the Senate votes on confirmation of federal judges (including Supreme Court justices) nominated by the President , as well as presidential appointments in the Department of Justice . In recent years, this role has made the committee increasingly a point of contention, with numerous party-line votes and standoffs over which judges should be approved. The committee also has a broad jurisdiction over matters relating to federal criminal law , as well as human rights, immigration law, intellectual property rights, antitrust law, and Internet privacy . It is also Senate procedure that all proposed Constitutional Amendments pass through the Judiciary Committee
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Bisbee, Arizona
BISBEE is a city in Cochise County , Arizona
Arizona
, United States
United States
, 92 miles (148 km) southeast of Tucson . According to the 2010 census , the population of the city was 5,575. The city is the county seat of Cochise County
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Martial Law
MA