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Red Summer
The RED SUMMER refers to the summer and early autumn of 1919, which was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the United States, as a result of race riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities and one rural county. In most instances, whites attacked African Americans . In some cases many black people fought back, notably in Chicago and Washington, D.C. The highest number of fatalities occurred in the rural area around Elaine, Arkansas , where five whites and an estimated 100–240 black people were killed; Chicago and Washington, D.C. had 38 and 15 deaths, respectively, and many more injured, with extensive property damage in Chicago. The riots resulted from a variety of postwar social tensions related to the demobilization of veterans of World War I
World War I
, both black and white, and competition for jobs and housing among ethnic white people and black people
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The Red Summer (EP)
THE RED SUMMER is the fifth EP by South Korean girl group Red Velvet . Marketed as a special "summer" mini-album release, it was released digitally on July 9, 2017 and physically on July 10, 2017 by SM Entertainment and distributed by Genie Music
Genie Music
. The EP includes a total of five tracks, including the title track "Red Flavor". The EP was a commercial success, peaking atop the Gaon Album Chart and giving the group their third no. 1 on Billboard\'s World Albums chart, setting the record for South Korean girl groups with the most no. 1 albums on the chart
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America _ Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos _ * " E pluribus unum " (
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Red Summer (1919)
The RED SUMMER refers to the summer and early autumn of 1919, which was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the United States, as a result of race riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities and one rural county. In most instances, whites attacked African Americans . In some cases many black people fought back, notably in Chicago and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
The highest number of fatalities occurred in the rural area around Elaine, Arkansas
Elaine, Arkansas
, where five whites and an estimated 100–240 black people were killed; Chicago and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
had 38 and 15 deaths, respectively, and many more injured, with extensive property damage in Chicago
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Bisbee Riot
The BISBEE RIOT, or the BATTLE OF BREWERY GULCH, refers to a conflict during the Red Summer on July 3, 1919, between Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry and members of local police forces in Bisbee , Arizona
Arizona
. Following an incident between a military policeman and some of the Buffalo Soldiers, the situation escalated into a street battle in Bisbee's historic Brewery Gulch. At least eight people were seriously injured, and fifty soldiers were arrested, although the consequences of this skirmish were relatively minor compared to others during the summer of 1919. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Riot * 3 Aftermath * 4 See also * 5 References BACKGROUNDIn 1919, Bisbee had a population 20,000 and was home to white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native Americans. Although a busy place, it was described by author Cameron McWhirter as a "remote... dusty frontier town," ten miles north of the Mexican border
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Longview Race Riot
The LONGVIEW RACE RIOT refers to a series of violent incidents in Longview , Texas
Texas
, between July 10 and July 12, 1919, when whites attacked black areas of town, killed one black man, and burned down several properties, including the houses of a black teacher and a doctor. It was the second of 25 race riots in 1919 in the United States during what became known as Red Summer , a period after World War I known for numerous riots occurring mostly in urban areas. The riot is notable for local and state officials taking actions to impose military authority and quell further violence. After ignoring early rumors of planned unrest, local officials appealed to the governor for forces to quell the violence. In a short time, the Texas National Guard and Texas
Texas
Rangers sent forces to the town, where the Guard organized an occupation and curfew
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Chicago Race Riot Of 1919
The CHICAGO RACE RIOT OF 1919 was a major racial conflict that began in Chicago
Chicago
, Illinois, on July 27, 1919, and ended on August 3. During the riot, thirty-eight people died (23 black and 15 white) and over five hundred were injured. It is considered the worst of the approximately 25 riots during the Red Summer , so named because of the violence and fatalities across the nation. The combination of prolonged arson , looting , and murder made it the worst race riot in the history of Illinois
Illinois
. The sociopolitical atmosphere of Chicago
Chicago
was one of ethnic tension caused by competition among many new groups. With the Great Migration , thousands of African Americans
African Americans
from the South had settled next to neighborhoods of European immigrants on Chicago's South Side , near jobs in the stockyards and meatpacking plants
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Knoxville Riot Of 1919
The KNOXVILLE RIOT OF 1919 was a race riot that took place in Knoxville, Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee
, United States, on August 30–31, 1919. The riot began when a lynch mob stormed the county jail in search of Maurice Mays, a mulatto man who had been accused of murdering a white woman. Unable to find Mays, the rioters looted the jail and fought a pitched gun battle with the residents of a predominantly black neighborhood. The Tennessee National Guard
Tennessee National Guard
, which at one point fired two machine guns indiscriminately into this neighborhood, eventually dispersed the rioters. Newspapers placed the death toll at just two, though eyewitness accounts suggest it was much higher. The Riot of 1919 was one of several violent racial incidents that occurred during the so-called Red Summer , when race riots plagued cities across the United States
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Omaha Race Riot Of 1919
The OMAHA RACE RIOT occurred in Omaha , Nebraska
Nebraska
, September 28–29, 1919. The race riot resulted in the brutal lynching of Will Brown, a black worker; the death of two white men; the attempted hanging of Mayor Edward Parsons Smith ; and a public rampage by thousands of whites who set fire to the Douglas County Courthouse in downtown Omaha
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Elaine Race Riot
The ELAINE RACE RIOT, also called the ELAINE MASSACRE, began on September 30–October 1, 1919 at Hoop Spur in the vicinity of Elaine in rural Phillips County, Arkansas
Phillips County, Arkansas
. With an estimated 100 to 237 blacks killed, along with five white men, it is considered the deadliest race riot in the state and one of the deadliest racial conflicts in all of United States history. Due to the widespread white mob attacks, in 2015 the Equal Justice Institute classified the black deaths as lynchings in their report on lynchings in the United States . Located in the Arkansas Delta
Arkansas Delta
, the county had been developed for cotton plantations , worked by African-American
African-American
slaves. In the early 20th century the population was still overwhelmingly black: African Americans outnumbered whites in the area around Elaine by a ten-to-one ratio, and by three-to-one in the county overall
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African Americans
AFRICAN AMERICANS (also referred to as BLACK AMERICANS or AFRO-AMERICANS ) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term may also be used to include only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans . As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States (after White Americans and Hispanic and Latino Americans ). Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West /Central African and European descent, and some also have Native American ancestry. According to US Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American
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Chicago Race Riot Of 1919
The CHICAGO RACE RIOT OF 1919 was a major racial conflict that began in Chicago
Chicago
, Illinois, on July 27, 1919, and ended on August 3. During the riot, thirty-eight people died (23 black and 15 white) and over five hundred were injured. It is considered the worst of the approximately 25 riots during the Red Summer , so named because of the violence and fatalities across the nation. The combination of prolonged arson , looting , and murder made it the worst race riot in the history of Illinois
Illinois
. The sociopolitical atmosphere of Chicago
Chicago
was one of ethnic tension caused by competition among many new groups. With the Great Migration , thousands of African Americans
African Americans
from the South had settled next to neighborhoods of European immigrants on Chicago's South Side , near jobs in the stockyards and meatpacking plants
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Washington, D.C.
WASHINGTON, D.C., formally the DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA and commonly referred to as "WASHINGTON", "THE DISTRICT", or simply "D.C.", is the capital of the United States
United States
. The signing of the Residence Act
Residence Act
on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River
Potomac River
on the country's East Coast . The U.S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia
Virginia
each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria . Named in honor of President George Washington
George Washington
, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital
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Elaine Race Riot
The ELAINE RACE RIOT, also called the ELAINE MASSACRE, began on September 30–October 1, 1919 at Hoop Spur in the vicinity of Elaine in rural Phillips County, Arkansas
Phillips County, Arkansas
. With an estimated 100 to 237 blacks killed, along with five white men, it is considered the deadliest race riot in the state and one of the deadliest racial conflicts in all of United States history. Due to the widespread white mob attacks, in 2015 the Equal Justice Institute classified the black deaths as lynchings in their report on lynchings in the United States . Located in the Arkansas Delta
Arkansas Delta
, the county had been developed for cotton plantations , worked by African-American
African-American
slaves. In the early 20th century the population was still overwhelmingly black: African Americans outnumbered whites in the area around Elaine by a ten-to-one ratio, and by three-to-one in the county overall
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World War I
Allied victory (exception: Russian defeat) * Fall of the German , Russian , Ottoman , and Austro-Hungarian empires * Russian Civil War and foundation of Soviet Union * Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East * Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers * Establishment of the League of Nations . (more..
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