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Red Summer
The RED SUMMER refers to the summer and early autumn of 1919, which was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the United States, as a result of race riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities and one rural county. In most instances, whites attacked African Americans . In some cases many black people fought back, notably in Chicago and Washington, D.C. The highest number of fatalities occurred in the rural area around Elaine, Arkansas , where five whites and an estimated 100–240 black people were killed; Chicago and Washington, D.C. had 38 and 15 deaths, respectively, and many more injured, with extensive property damage in Chicago. The riots resulted from a variety of postwar social tensions related to the demobilization of veterans of World War I , both black and white, and competition for jobs and housing among ethnic white people and black people
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Labor Rights
LABOR RIGHTS or WORKERS\' RIGHTS are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers , usually obtained under labor and employment law . In general, these rights' debates have to do with negotiating workers' pay, benefits, and safe working conditions . One of the most central of these rights is the right to unionize . Unions take advantage of collective bargaining and industrial action to increase their members' wages and otherwise change their working situation. Labor rights can also take in the form of worker\'s control and worker\'s self management in which workers have a democratic voice in decision and policy making. The labor movement initially focused on this "right to unionize", but attention has shifted elsewhere. Critics of the labor rights movement claim that regulation promoted by labor rights activists may limit opportunities for work
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United States Department Of Labor
The UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government responsible for occupational safety , wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, and some economic statistics; many U.S. states also have such departments. The department is headed by the U.S. Secretary of Labor . The purpose of the Department of Labor is to foster, promote, and develop the welfare of the wage earners, job seekers, and retirees of the United States; improve working conditions; advance opportunities for profitable employment; and assure work-related benefits and rights. In carrying out this mission, the Department of Labor administers and enforces more than 180 federal laws and thousands of federal regulations. These mandates and the regulations that implement them cover many workplace activities for about 10 million employers and 125 million workers
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Chicago Daily News
The CHICAGO DAILY NEWS was an afternoon daily newspaper published between 1876 and 1978 in Chicago, Illinois , United States. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Independent newspaper * 1.2 Knight Newspapers and Field Enterprises * 2 Pulitzer Prizes * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links HISTORY Daily News Building The Daily News was founded by Melville E. Stone , Percy Meggy, and William Dougherty in 1875 and began publishing early the next year. It strove for mass readership in contrast with its primary competitor, the Chicago Tribune , which was more influential among the city's elites; for many years, the Daily News boasted a 1¢ newsstand price. Byron Andrews , fresh out of Hobart College, was one of the first reporters. Victor F. Lawson bought the Chicago Daily News in 1876 and became its business manager
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NAACP
The NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial organization to advance justice for African Americans by W. E. B. Du Bois , Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey . Its mission in the 21st century is "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination." Their national initiatives included political lobbying, publicity efforts, and litigation strategies developed by their legal team. The group enlarged its mission in the late 20th century by considering issues such as police misconduct, the status of black foreign refugees, and questions of economic development. Its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term colored people , referring to people of some African ancestry
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Racial Equality
RACIAL EQUALITY occurs when people of all races are given equal opportunity. In other words, by ignoring their racial physical characteristics, and giving everyone legally, morally, and politically equal opportunity. In today's society, there is more diversity and more integration among races. Initially, attaining equality has been difficult for African Americans
African Americans
, Asians , and Latinos
Latinos
, especially in schools. However, in the United States
United States
, racial equality, has become a law that regardless of what race an individual is, they will receive equal treatment, opportunity, education, employment, and politics
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Bolshevik
The BOLSHEVIKS, originally also BOLSHEVISTS or BOLSHEVIKI (Russian : большевики, большевик (singular); IPA: ; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903. The RSDLP was a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898 in Minsk in Belarus
Belarus
to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
into one party. In the Second Party Congress vote, the Bolsheviks won on the majority of important issues, hence their name. They ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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East St. Louis, Illinois
EAST ST. LOUIS is a city in St. Clair County, Illinois , United States , across the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
from St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri
, in the Metro-East region of Southern Illinois . Once a bustling industrial center like many cities in the Rust Belt
Rust Belt
, East St. Louis has been severely affected by loss of jobs due to deindustrialization during the second half of the 20th century. In 1950, East St. Louis was the fourth largest city in Illinois
Illinois
when population peaked at 82,366. As of the 2010 census , the city had a population of 27,006, less than one-third of the 1950 census . One of the highlights of the city's waterfront is the Gateway Geyser . Located on the grounds of Malcolm W. Martin Memorial Park, the fountain is the second-tallest in the world
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Demobilization
DEMOBILIZATION or DEMOBILISATION (see spelling differences ) is the process of standing down a nation's armed forces from combat-ready status. This may be as a result of victory in war , or because a crisis has been peacefully resolved and military force will not be necessary. The opposite of demobilization is mobilization . Forceful demobilization of a defeated enemy is called demilitarization . In the final days of World War
War
II , for example, the United States Armed Forces developed a demobilization plan which would discharge soldiers on the basis of a point system that favoured length and certain types of service. The British armed forces were demobilised according to an 'age-and-service' scheme. The phrase demob happy refers to demobilization and is broadly applied to the feeling of relief at imminent release from a time-serving burden, such as a career
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Price Controls
PRICE CONTROLS are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market. The intent behind implementing such controls can stem from the desire to maintain affordability of goods, to prevent during shortages, and to slow inflation, or, alternatively, to ensure a minimum income for providers of certain goods or a minimum wage . There are two primary forms of price control, a price ceiling , the maximum price that can be charged, and a price floor , the minimum price that can be charged. Historically, price controls have often been imposed as part of a larger incomes policy package also employing wage controls and other regulatory elements. Although price controls are sometimes used by governments, economists usually agree that price controls don't accomplish what they are intended to do and are generally to be avoided
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Russian Revolution (1917)
The RUSSIAN REVOLUTION was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union . The Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar ; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'soviets ') which contended for authority. In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was toppled and all power was given to the soviets
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United States Senate Committee On The Judiciary
The UNITED STATES SENATE COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY, informally the SENATE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE, is a standing committee of the United States Senate , of the United States Congress
United States Congress
. The Judiciary Committee, with 20 members, is in charge of conducting hearings prior to the Senate votes on confirmation of federal judges (including Supreme Court justices) nominated by the President , as well as presidential appointments in the Department of Justice . In recent years, this role has made the committee increasingly a point of contention, with numerous party-line votes and standoffs over which judges should be approved. The committee also has a broad jurisdiction over matters relating to federal criminal law , as well as human rights, immigration law, intellectual property rights, antitrust law, and Internet privacy . It is also Senate procedure that all proposed Constitutional Amendments pass through the Judiciary Committee
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A. Philip Randolph
ASA PHILIP RANDOLPH (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a leader in the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
, the American labor movement , and socialist political parties. He organized and led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters , the first predominantly African-American labor union. In the early Civil Rights Movement and the Labor Movement , Randolph was a voice that would not be silenced. His continuous agitation with the support of fellow labor rights activists against unfair labor practices in relation to people of color eventually led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 8802 in 1941, banning discrimination in the defense industries during World War II
World War II
. The group then successfully pressured President Harry S. Truman
Harry S

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Bisbee, Arizona
BISBEE is a city in Cochise County , Arizona
Arizona
, United States
United States
, 92 miles (148 km) southeast of Tucson . According to the 2010 census , the population of the city was 5,575. The city is the county seat of Cochise County
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10th Cavalry Regiment (United States)
The 10TH CAVALRY REGIMENT is a unit of the United States
United States
Army . Formed as a segregated African-American unit, the 10th Cavalry was one of the original " Buffalo Soldier
Buffalo Soldier
" regiments in the post-Civil War Regular Army. It served in combat during the Indian Wars
Indian Wars
in the western United States, the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
in Cuba
Cuba
and in the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
. The regiment was trained as a combat unit but later relegated to non-combat duty and served in that capacity in World War II
World War II
until its deactivation in 1944. The 10th Cavalry was reactivated as an integrated combat unit in 1958
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Buffalo Soldiers
BUFFALO SOLDIERS originally were members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States
United States
Army , formed on September 21, 1866, at Fort Leavenworth
Fort Leavenworth
, Kansas
Kansas
. This nickname was given to the "Negro Cavalry
Cavalry
" by the Native American tribes they fought in the Indian Wars
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