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Record Label
A RECORD LABEL or RECORD COMPANY is a brand or trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos . Sometimes, a record label is also a publishing company that manages such brands and trademarks, coordinates the production, manufacture , distribution , marketing, promotion, and enforcement of copyright for sound recordings and music videos; also conducting talent scouting and development of new artists ("artists and repertoire" or "A and maintains contracts with recording artists and their managers. The term "record label" derives from the circular label in the center of a vinyl record which prominently displays the manufacturer's name, along with other information
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Recorded Sound
SOUND RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION is an electrical , mechanical , electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music , or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording . Prior to the development of sound recording, there were mechanical systems for encoding and reproducing instrumental music, such as wind-up music boxes and, later, player pianos . Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that can detect and sense the changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and record them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record)
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Music Videos
A MUSIC VIDEO is a short film integrating a song and imagery, produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are primarily made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings . There are also cases where songs are used in tie in marketing campaigns that allow them to become more than just a song. Tie ins and merchandising could be used in toys or marketing campaigns for food and other products. Although the origins of music videos date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they came into prominence in the 1980s when MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these works were described by various terms including "illustrated song ", "filmed insert", "promotional (promo) film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song video", "song clip" or "film clip"
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Publisher
PUBLISHING is the dissemination of literature , music , or information —the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content for the same. Also, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books (the "book trade") and newspapers . With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet , the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing , websites , blogs , video game publishers , and the like
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Manufacturing
MANUFACTURING is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines , tools , chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech , but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft , household appliances , furniture , sports equipment or automobiles , or sold to wholesalers , who in turn sell them to retailers , who then sell them to end users and consumers . Manufacturing engineering or MANUFACTURING PROCESS are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made
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Distribution (business)
DISTRIBUTION (or PLACE) is one of the four elements of the marketing mix . Distribution is the process of making a product or service available for the consumer or business user that needs it. This can be done directly by the producer or service provider, or using indirect channels with distributors or intermediaries . The other three elements of the marketing mix are product , pricing , and promotion . Decisions about distribution need to be taken in line with a company's overall strategic vision and mission . Developing a coherent distribution plan is a central component of strategic planning . At the strategic level, there are three broad approaches to distribution, namely mass, selective or exclusive distribution. The number and type of intermediaries selected largely depends on the strategic approach. The overall distribution channel should add value to the consumer
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Copyright
COPYRIGHT is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution. This is usually only for a limited time. The exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright is that copyright protects only the original expression of ideas, and not the underlying ideas themselves. Copyright is a form of intellectual property , applicable to certain forms of creative work. Some, but not all jurisdictions require "fixing" copyrighted works in a tangible form. It is often shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are commonly referred to as rights holders. These rights frequently include reproduction, control over derivative works , distribution, public performance , and "moral rights " such as attribution
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A&R
ARTISTS AND REPERTOIRE (A every activity involving artists to the point of album release is generally considered under the purview, and responsibility, of A&R. CONTENTS* 1 Responsibilities * 1.1 Finding talent * 1.2 Overseeing the recording process * 1.3 Assisting with marketing and promotion * 2 History and influence * 3 Regional variations * 4 Recent changes * 5 See also * 6 Citations * 7 References RESPONSIBILITIESFINDING TALENTThe A&R division of a record label is responsible for finding new recording artists and bringing those artists to the record company. Personnel in the A&R division are expected to understand the current tastes of the market and to be able to find artists that will be commercially successful. For this reason, A&R people are often young and many are musicians, music journalists or record producers
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Recording Contract
A RECORDING CONTRACT (commonly called a RECORD CONTRACT or RECORD DEAL) is a legal agreement between a record label and a recording artist (or group), where the artist makes a record (or series of records) for the label to sell and promote. Artists under contract are normally only allowed to record for that label exclusively; guest appearances on other artists' records will carry a notice "By courtesy of (the name of the label)", and that label may receive a percentage of sales. CONTENTS * 1 Copyrights, payment and royalties * 2 Termination * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography COPYRIGHTS, PAYMENT AND ROYALTIESLabels typically own the copyright in the records their artists make, and also the master copies of those records
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Music Industry
The MUSIC INDUSTRY consists of the companies and individuals that earn money by creating new songs and pieces and selling live concerts and shows, audio and video recordings, compositions and sheet music , and the organizations and associations that aid and represent creators. Among the many individuals and organizations that operate in the industry are: the songwriters and composers who create new songs and musical pieces; the singers , musicians , conductors and bandleaders who perform the music; the companies and professionals who create and sell recorded music and/or sheet music (e.g., music publishers , music producers , recording studios , engineers , record labels , retail and online music stores , performance rights organizations ); and those that help organize and present live music performances (sound engineers , booking agents , promoters , music venues , road crew )
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Publicist
A PUBLICIST is a person whose job it is to generate and manage publicity for a public figure , especially a celebrity or for a work such as a book , film or album . Most top-level publicists work in private practice, handling multiple clients. The term "publicist" was coined by Columbia law professor Francis Lieber (1800–1872) to describe the public-like role of internationalists during the late nineteenth century
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Music Video
A MUSIC VIDEO is a short film integrating a song and imagery, produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are primarily made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings . There are also cases where songs are used in tie in marketing campaigns that allow them to become more than just a song. Tie ins and merchandising could be used in toys or marketing campaigns for food and other products. Although the origins of music videos date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they came into prominence in the 1980s when MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these works were described by various terms including "illustrated song ", "filmed insert", "promotional (promo) film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song video", "song clip" or "film clip"
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Independent Record Label
An INDEPENDENT RECORD LABEL (or "INDIE LABEL") is a record label that operates without the funding of or outside major record labels . Many commercial bands and musical acts begin their careers on independent labels. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References OVERVIEWThe boundaries between major and independent labels, and the definitions of each, differ from commentator to commentator. The traditional definition of a "major" record label is one that owns its own distribution channel. Some independent record labels, in particular those with successful performing artists, sign dual-release agreements (and make other deals) with major labels and may rely to some extent on international licensing deals, distribution agreements, and other arrangements with major record labels. Major labels may also wholly or partially acquire independent labels
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Multinational Corporation
A MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION or WORLDWIDE ENTERPRISE is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in two or more countries other than their home country. CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Overview * 3 Theoretical background * 4 Transnational corporations * 5 Multinational enterprise * 6 Multinational corporation and colonialism * 7 Criticism of multinationals * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links NAMESA multinational corporation can also be referred to as an MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISE (MNE), a INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, a TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATION, or a STATELESS CORPORATION. There are subtle but real differences between these three labels, as well as those labels of MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION and a WORLDWIDE ENTERPRISE. OVERVIEW Toyota is one of the world's largest multinational corporations with their headquarters in Toyota City , Japan
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Universal Music Group
UNIVERSAL MUSIC GROUP (also known in the United States
United States
as UMG RECORDINGS, INC. and abbreviated as UMG) is an American global music corporation that is a subsidiary of the French media conglomerate Vivendi . UMG's global corporate headquarters are in Santa Monica
Santa Monica
, California
California
. It is considered one of the "Big Three " record labels, along with Sony Music and Warner Music Group
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Sony Music Entertainment
SONY MUSIC ENTERTAINMENT (known professionally as SONY MUSIC and abbreviated as SME) is an American music company owned by Sony
Sony
that is incorporated as a general partnership of Sony
Sony
Music Holdings Inc. through Sony
Sony
Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony
Sony
Corporation of America . The company was first founded in 1929 as American Record Corporation and renamed Columbia Recording Corporation in 1938, following its acquisition by the Columbia Broadcasting
Broadcasting
System . In 1966, the company was reorganized to become CBS
CBS
Records. Sony Corporation bought the company in 1987 and renamed it Sony
Sony
Music Entertainment in 1991
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