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Record Chart
A RECORD CHART also called a MUSIC CHART is a ranking of recorded music according to popularity during a given period of time. Examples of music charts are the Hit parade , the Billboard Hot 100 or Top 40 . Many different criteria are used in different charts, including sales of records , cassettes and compact discs , the amount of radio airplay, and since the introduction of digital technology, the number of downloads and the amount of streaming activity. Some charts are specific to a particular musical genre and most to a particular geographical location (although download charts are not easily pinned down in this way). The most common period of time covered by a chart is one week with the chart being printed or broadcast at the end of this time. Summary charts for years and decades are then calculated from their component weekly charts. Component charts have become an increasingly important way to measure the commercial success of individual songs. CONTENTS * 1 Chart hit * 2 Other terminology * 3 See also * 4 External links * 5 References CHART HITA chart hit is an extremely popular recording, identified by its inclusion in a chart that uses sales or other criteria to rank popular releases. Chart-topper and related terms (like number one, No. 1 hit, top of the charts, chart hit, and so forth) are widely used in common conversation and in marketing, and are loosely defined
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Head (music)
In its broadest sense, the HEAD of a piece of music is its main theme , particularly in jazz , where the term takes on a more specific set of connotations. In other types of music, "head" may refer to the first or most prominent section of a song. The term may, though obtusely, be applied to classical music , insofar as classical pieces generally bear similar thematic elements, but the preferred term in this instance is (main) theme or subject . The term "head" is most often used in jazz and may refer to the thematic melody , an instance of it in a performance of the song, or a more abstract compilation of ideas as to what the song is. It may also, though uncommonly, refer to the first section of the melody, or the theme riff in the melody. There is a slightly related musical direction, D.C. or DA CAPO (Italian, from head), which means to go back to the very beginning of the sheet music and play to the end, typically ignoring all repeat signs . CONTENTS * 1 What\'s in a head * 2 Use * 3 Knowing heads * 4 See also * 5 Sources WHAT\'S IN A HEADThe idea a head represents comprises a combination of elements
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Sound Recording And Reproduction
SOUND RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION is an electrical , mechanical , electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music , or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording . Prior to the development of sound recording, there were mechanical systems for encoding and reproducing instrumental music, such as wind-up music boxes and, later, player pianos . Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that can detect and sense the changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and record them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record). In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current , which is then converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet , which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves
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Hit Parade
A HIT PARADE is a ranked list of the most popular recordings at a given point in time, usually determined by sales and/or airplay . The term originated in the 1930s; _Billboard_ magazine published its first music hit parade on January 4, 1936. It has also been used by broadcast programs which featured hit (sheet music and record) tunes such as _ Your Hit Parade _, which aired on radio and television in the United States from 1935 through the 1950s. CONTENTS * 1 Early history * 2 Rock and roll period * 3 Europe * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links EARLY HISTORYHit tunes were originally published as sheet music, so many artists were encouraged to introduce or promote a tune in different styles, formats or areas of popularity. Through the late 1940s, the term _hit parade_ referred to a list of compositions, not a list of records. In those times, when a tune became a hit, it was typically recorded by several different artists. Each record company often promoted its own product through the airtime it purchased on commercial radio stations. Most non-commercial stations, like the BBC , were required by national regulations to promote local talent, and were also limited in the amount of _needle time _ given to recorded popular music. In later years, a re-recording of a tune originally introduced or popularised by a certain artist was called a _cover version _
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Billboard Hot 100
The _BILLBOARD_ HOT 100 is the music industry standard record chart in the United States for singles , published weekly by _Billboard _ magazine. Chart rankings are based on sales (physical and digital ), radio play , and online streaming . The weekly sales period was originally Monday to Sunday, when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but was changed to Friday to Thursday in July 2015. Radio airplay, which, unlike sales figures and streaming data, is readily available on a real-time basis, and is tracked on a Monday to Sunday cycle (previously Wednesday to Tuesday). A new chart is compiled and officially released to the public by _Billboard_ on Tuesdays. Example: * Friday, January 1 – sales tracking-week begins, streaming tracking-week begins * Monday, January 4 – airplay tracking-week begins * Thursday, January 7 – sales tracking-week ends, streaming tracking-week ends * Sunday, January 10 – airplay tracking-week ends * Tuesday, January 12 – new chart released, with issue post-dated Saturday, January 23The first number one song of the Hot 100 was " Poor Little Fool " by Ricky Nelson , on August 4, 1958. As of the issue for the week ending on August 5, 2017, the Hot 100 has had 1,065 different number one hits. The current number one song is " Despacito " by Luis Fonsi and Daddy Yankee featuring Justin Bieber
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Top 40
In the music industry , the TOP 40 is the current, forty most-popular songs in a particular genre . It is the best-selling or most frequently broadcast popular music . Record charts have traditionally consisted of a total of 40 songs. "Top 40" or "contemporary hit radio " is also a radio format . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Top 40 music charts and programs * 3 Further reading * 4 External links * 5 References HISTORYAccording to producer Richard Fatherley, Todd Storz was the inventor of the format, at his radio station KOWH in Omaha, Nebraska . Storz used what he saw from the repetition of plays on the jukebox to develop his platform. The format was commercially successful, and Storz and his father Robert, under the name of the Storz Broadcasting Company, subsequently acquired other stations to use the new Top 40 format. In 1989 Todd Storz was inducted into the Nebraska Broadcasters Association Hall of Fame. The term "Top 40" for a radio format appeared in 1960. The Top 40, whether surveyed by a radio station or a publication, was a list of songs that shared only the common characteristic of being newly released. Its introduction coincided with a transition from the old ten-inch 78 rpm record format for single "pop" recordings to the seven-inch vinyl 45 rpm format, introduced in 1949, which was outselling it by 1954 and soon replaced it completely in 1958
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Gramophone Record
A GRAMOPHONE RECORD (PHONOGRAPH RECORD in the US), commonly known as a VINYL RECORD or simply VINYL or RECORD, is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat polyvinyl chloride (previously shellac ) disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. The phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and replaced it by the late 1920s. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the late 1980s, digital media , in the form of the compact disc , had gained a larger market share, and the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. From the 1990s to the 2010s, records continued to be manufactured and sold on a much smaller scale, and were especially used by disc jockeys (DJs), released by artists in some genres, and listened to by a niche market of audiophiles . The phonograph record has made a niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. Likewise, in the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014. As of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries
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Compact Cassette
The COMPACT CASSETTE or MUSICASSETTE (MC), also commonly called CASSETTE TAPE, AUDIO CASSETTE, or simply TAPE or CASSETTE, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback . It was released by Philips in 1962, having been developed in Hasselt , Belgium . Compact cassettes come in two forms, either already containing content as a pre-recorded cassette, or as a fully recordable "blank" cassette. It was designed originally for dictation machines , but improvements in fidelity led the Compact Cassette to supplant the Stereo 8-track cartridge and reel-to-reel tape recording in most non-professional applications. Its uses ranged from portable audio to home recording to data storage for early microcomputers . The first cassette player (although mono) designed for use in car dashes was introduced in 1968. Between the early 1970s and the early 2000s, the cassette was one of the two most common formats for prerecorded music, first alongside the LP record and later the compact disc (CD). Compact Cassettes contain two miniature spools, between which a magnetically coated, polyester-type plastic film is passed and wound. These spools and their attendant parts are held inside a protective plastic shell
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Compact Discs
COMPACT DISC (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format released in 1982 and co-developed by Philips
Philips
and Sony
Sony
. The format was originally developed to store and play only sound recordings but was later adapted for storage of data ( CD-ROM
CD-ROM
). Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage ( CD-R
CD-R
), rewritable media ( CD-RW
CD-RW
), Video Compact Disc
Compact Disc
( VCD
VCD
), Super Video Compact Disc
Compact Disc
(S VCD
VCD
), Photo CD
Photo CD
, PictureCD, CD-i , and Enhanced Music CD. The first commercially available Audio CD player
CD player
, the Sony
Sony
CDP-101 , was released October 1982 in Japan
Japan
. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres (4.7 in) and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB
MiB
of data. The Mini CDhas various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres (2.4 to 3.1 in); they are sometimes used for CD singles, storing up to 24 minutes of audio, or delivering device drivers . At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive , which would typically hold 10 MB
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Radio
RADIO is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude , frequency , phase , or pulse width . When radio waves strike an electrical conductor , the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form. Radio
Radio
systems need a transmitter to modulate (change) some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation (which can be frequency modulation or phase modulation ). Radio
Radio
systems also need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves , and radio waves into an electric current. An antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving. The electrical resonance of tuned circuits in radios allow individual stations to be selected. The electromagnetic wave is intercepted by a tuned receiving antenna . A radio receiver receives its input from an antenna and converts it into a form that is usable for the consumer, such as sound, pictures, digital data, measurement values, navigational positions, etc. Radio frequencies occupy the range from a 3 kHz to 300 GHz, although commercially important uses of radio use only a small part of this spectrum
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Downloads
In computer networks , to DOWNLOAD is to receive data from a remote system, typically a server such as a web server , an FTP server, an email server, or other similar systems. This contrasts with uploading , where data is sent _to_ a remote server. A _download_ is a file offered for downloading or that has been downloaded, or the process of receiving such a file. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Copyright * 2.1 Litigations in European Union * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DEFINITION Download
Download
data is sent downstream to an end-user, upstream from the provider Downloading generally transfers entire files for local storage and later use, as contrasted with streaming , where the data is used nearly immediately, while the transmission is still in progress, and which may not be stored long-term. Increasingly, websites that offer streaming media or media displayed in-browser, such as YouTube
YouTube
, and which place restrictions on the ability of users to save these materials to their computers after they have been received. Downloading is not the same as data transfer ; moving or copying data between two storage devices would be data transfer , but receiving data from the Internet is _downloading_. COPYRIGHTDownloading media files involves the use of linking and framing Internet material, and relates to copyright law
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Streaming Media
STREAMING MEDIA is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of delivering or obtaining media in this manner; the term refers to the delivery method of the medium, rather than the medium itself, and is an alternative to file downloading , a process in which the end-user obtains the entire file for the content before watching or listening to it. A client end-user can use their media player to begin to play the data file (such as a digital file of a movie or song) before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies specifically to telecommunications networks , as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g. radio , television , streaming apps or inherently non-streaming (e.g. books , video cassettes , audio CDs ). For example, in the 1930s, elevator music was among the earliest popularly available streaming media; nowadays Internet television is a common form of streamed media. The term "streaming media" can apply to media other than video and audio such as live closed captioning , ticker tape , and real-time text , which are all considered "streaming text". The term "streaming" was first used for tape drives made by Data Electronics Inc
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Musical Genre
A MUSIC GENRE is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from _musical form _ and _musical style_, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Recently, academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways. The artistic nature of music means that these classifications are often subjective and controversial, and some genres may overlap. There are even varying academic definitions of the term _genre_ itself. In his book _Form in Tonal Music_, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between genre and form . He lists madrigal , motet , canzona , ricercar , and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of _genre_, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, and the _Agnus Dei_ from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form." Some, like Peter van der Merwe , treat the terms _genre_ and _style_ as the same, saying that _genre_ should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F
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Billboard Magazine
_BILLBOARD_ (stylized as _BILLBOARD_) is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Hollywood Reporter-Billboard Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries . It publishes pieces involving news, video, opinion, reviews, events, and style. It is also known for its music charts , including the _Billboard_ Hot 100 and _Billboard_ 200 , tracking the most popular singles and albums in different genres. It also hosts events, owns a publishing firm, and operates several TV shows. _Billboard_ was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson later acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses, fairs, and burlesque shows. It also created a mail service for travelling entertainers. _Billboard_ began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox , phonograph , and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including _Amusement Business_ in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music. After Donaldson died in 1925, _Billboard_ was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, and has since been owned by various parties
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Billboard 200
The BILLBOARD 200 is a record chart ranking the 200 most popular music albums and EPs in the United States
United States
. It is published weekly by Billboard magazine. It is frequently used to convey the popularity of an artist or groups of artists. Often, a recording act will be remembered by its "number ones ", those of their albums that outperformed all others during at least one week. The chart is based mostly on sales (both at retail and digital ) of albums in the United States. The weekly sales period was originally Monday to Sunday when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but since July 2015, tracking week begins on Friday (to coincide with the Global Release Date of the music industry ) and ends on Thursday. A new chart is published the following Tuesday with an issue post-dated to the Saturday of the following week. The chart's streaming schedule is also tracked from Friday to Thursday. Example: Friday January 1 – sales tracking week begins Thursday January 7 – sales tracking week ends Tuesday January 12 – new chart published, with issue date of Saturday January 23. New product is released to the American market on Fridays. Digital downloads of albums are also included in Billboard 200
Billboard 200
tabulation. Albums that are not licensed for retail sale in the United States
United States
(yet purchased in the U.S. as imports) are not eligible to chart