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Record Chart
A RECORD CHART also called a MUSIC CHART is a ranking of recorded music according to popularity during a given period of time. Examples of music charts are the Hit parade , the Billboard Hot 100 or Top 40 . Many different criteria are used in different charts, including sales of records , cassettes and compact discs , the amount of radio airplay, and since the introduction of digital technology, the number of downloads and the amount of streaming activity. Some charts are specific to a particular musical genre and most to a particular geographical location (although download charts are not easily pinned down in this way). The most common period of time covered by a chart is one week with the chart being printed or broadcast at the end of this time
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Head (music)
In its broadest sense, the HEAD of a piece of music is its main theme , particularly in jazz , where the term takes on a more specific set of connotations. In other types of music, "head" may refer to the first or most prominent section of a song. The term may, though obtusely, be applied to classical music , insofar as classical pieces generally bear similar thematic elements, but the preferred term in this instance is (main) theme or subject . The term "head" is most often used in jazz and may refer to the thematic melody , an instance of it in a performance of the song, or a more abstract compilation of ideas as to what the song is. It may also, though uncommonly, refer to the first section of the melody, or the theme riff in the melody. There is a slightly related musical direction, D.C. or DA CAPO (Italian, from head), which means to go back to the very beginning of the sheet music and play to the end, typically ignoring all repeat signs
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Sound Recording And Reproduction
SOUND RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION is an electrical , mechanical , electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music , or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording . Prior to the development of sound recording, there were mechanical systems for encoding and reproducing instrumental music, such as wind-up music boxes and, later, player pianos . Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that can detect and sense the changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and record them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record)
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Hit Parade
A HIT PARADE is a ranked list of the most popular recordings at a given point in time, usually determined by sales and/or airplay . The term originated in the 1930s; _Billboard_ magazine published its first music hit parade on January 4, 1936. It has also been used by broadcast programs which featured hit (sheet music and record) tunes such as _ Your Hit Parade _, which aired on radio and television in the United States from 1935 through the 1950s. CONTENTS * 1 Early history * 2 Rock and roll period * 3 Europe * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links EARLY HISTORYHit tunes were originally published as sheet music, so many artists were encouraged to introduce or promote a tune in different styles, formats or areas of popularity. Through the late 1940s, the term _hit parade_ referred to a list of compositions, not a list of records
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Billboard Hot 100
The _BILLBOARD_ HOT 100 is the music industry standard record chart in the United States for singles , published weekly by _Billboard _ magazine. Chart rankings are based on sales (physical and digital ), radio play , and online streaming . The weekly sales period was originally Monday to Sunday, when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but was changed to Friday to Thursday in July 2015. Radio airplay, which, unlike sales figures and streaming data, is readily available on a real-time basis, and is tracked on a Monday to Sunday cycle (previously Wednesday to Tuesday). A new chart is compiled and officially released to the public by _Billboard_ on Tuesdays
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Top 40
In the music industry , the TOP 40 is the current, forty most-popular songs in a particular genre . It is the best-selling or most frequently broadcast popular music . Record charts have traditionally consisted of a total of 40 songs. "Top 40" or "contemporary hit radio " is also a radio format . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Top 40 music charts and programs * 3 Further reading * 4 External links * 5 References HISTORYAccording to producer Richard Fatherley, Todd Storz was the inventor of the format, at his radio station KOWH in Omaha, Nebraska . Storz used what he saw from the repetition of plays on the jukebox to develop his platform. The format was commercially successful, and Storz and his father Robert, under the name of the Storz Broadcasting Company, subsequently acquired other stations to use the new Top 40 format. In 1989 Todd Storz was inducted into the Nebraska Broadcasters Association Hall of Fame
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Gramophone Record
A GRAMOPHONE RECORD (PHONOGRAPH RECORD in the US), commonly known as a VINYL RECORD or simply VINYL or RECORD, is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat polyvinyl chloride (previously shellac ) disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. The phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and replaced it by the late 1920s. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as compact cassette were mass-marketed
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Compact Cassette
The COMPACT CASSETTE or MUSICASSETTE (MC), also commonly called CASSETTE TAPE, AUDIO CASSETTE, or simply TAPE or CASSETTE, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback . It was released by Philips in 1962, having been developed in Hasselt , Belgium . Compact cassettes come in two forms, either already containing content as a pre-recorded cassette, or as a fully recordable "blank" cassette. It was designed originally for dictation machines , but improvements in fidelity led the Compact Cassette to supplant the Stereo 8-track cartridge and reel-to-reel tape recording in most non-professional applications. Its uses ranged from portable audio to home recording to data storage for early microcomputers
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Compact Discs
COMPACT DISC (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format released in 1982 and co-developed by Philips
Philips
and Sony
Sony
. The format was originally developed to store and play only sound recordings but was later adapted for storage of data ( CD-ROM
CD-ROM
). Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage ( CD-R
CD-R
), rewritable media ( CD-RW
CD-RW
), Video Compact Disc
Compact Disc
( VCD
VCD
), Super Video Compact Disc
Compact Disc
(S VCD
VCD
), Photo CD
Photo CD
, PictureCD, CD-i , and Enhanced Music CD
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Radio
RADIO is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude , frequency , phase , or pulse width . When radio waves strike an electrical conductor , the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form. Radio
Radio
systems need a transmitter to modulate (change) some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation (which can be frequency modulation or phase modulation ). Radio
Radio
systems also need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves , and radio waves into an electric current. An antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving
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Downloads
In computer networks , to DOWNLOAD is to receive data from a remote system, typically a server such as a web server , an FTP server, an email server, or other similar systems. This contrasts with uploading , where data is sent _to_ a remote server. A _download_ is a file offered for downloading or that has been downloaded, or the process of receiving such a file. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Copyright * 2.1 Litigations in European Union * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DEFINITION Download
Download
data is sent downstream to an end-user, upstream from the provider Downloading generally transfers entire files for local storage and later use, as contrasted with streaming , where the data is used nearly immediately, while the transmission is still in progress, and which may not be stored long-term
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Streaming Media
STREAMING MEDIA is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of delivering or obtaining media in this manner; the term refers to the delivery method of the medium, rather than the medium itself, and is an alternative to file downloading , a process in which the end-user obtains the entire file for the content before watching or listening to it. A client end-user can use their media player to begin to play the data file (such as a digital file of a movie or song) before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies specifically to telecommunications networks , as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g. radio , television , streaming apps or inherently non-streaming (e.g. books , video cassettes , audio CDs )
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Musical Genre
A MUSIC GENRE is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from _musical form _ and _musical style_, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Recently, academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways. The artistic nature of music means that these classifications are often subjective and controversial, and some genres may overlap. There are even varying academic definitions of the term _genre_ itself. In his book _Form in Tonal Music_, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between genre and form . He lists madrigal , motet , canzona , ricercar , and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of _genre_, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op
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Billboard Magazine
_BILLBOARD_ (stylized as _BILLBOARD_) is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Hollywood Reporter-Billboard Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries . It publishes pieces involving news, video, opinion, reviews, events, and style. It is also known for its music charts , including the _Billboard_ Hot 100 and _Billboard_ 200 , tracking the most popular singles and albums in different genres. It also hosts events, owns a publishing firm, and operates several TV shows. _Billboard_ was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson later acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses, fairs, and burlesque shows. It also created a mail service for travelling entertainers. _Billboard_ began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox , phonograph , and radio became commonplace
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Billboard 200
The BILLBOARD 200 is a record chart ranking the 200 most popular music albums and EPs in the United States
United States
. It is published weekly by Billboard magazine. It is frequently used to convey the popularity of an artist or groups of artists. Often, a recording act will be remembered by its "number ones ", those of their albums that outperformed all others during at least one week. The chart is based mostly on sales (both at retail and digital ) of albums in the United States. The weekly sales period was originally Monday to Sunday when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but since July 2015, tracking week begins on Friday (to coincide with the Global Release Date of the music industry ) and ends on Thursday. A new chart is published the following Tuesday with an issue post-dated to the Saturday of the following week. The chart's streaming schedule is also tracked from Friday to Thursday
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Joel Whitburn
JOEL CARVER WHITBURN (born November 29, 1939) is an American author and music historian . WORKWhitburn founded RECORD RESEARCH Inc. in Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin
Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin
, in 1970 and put together a team of researchers to examine in detail all of _Billboard _'s music and video charts. Record Research publishes reference books based on data from the various popular music charts and to date has published over 200 books, 50 of which are currently in the Record Research catalogue. His flagship publication is _Top Pop Singles_, which covers the history of _Billboard_'s popular music charts. Featuring each recording's peak position, date charted, weeks charted, label and information, and trivia on recordings and artists, Whitburn's books are used extensively by the entertainment industry (especially radio DJs) and music fans worldwide. His research extends from 1890 to the present and covers many genres
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