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Rebbe
REBBE (Hebrew : רבי‎‎) /ˈrɛbɛ/ or /ˈrɛbi/ , is a Yiddish word derived from the Hebrew word rabbi , which means "master, teacher, or mentor". Like the title "rabbi" it refers to teachers of Torah
Torah
or leaders of Judaism . In common parlance of modern times, the term "The Rebbe" is often used specifically by Hasidim to refer to the leader of their Hasidic movement
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Amoraim
AMORAIM (Aramaic : plural אמוראים‎ ʔamoraˈʔim, singular AMORA אמורא‎ ʔamoˈʁa; "those who say" or "those who speak over the people", or "spokesmen") refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah . They were concentrated in Babylonia
Babylonia
and the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
. Their legal discussions and debates were eventually codified in the Gemara
Gemara
. The Amoraim
Amoraim
followed the Tannaim in the sequence of ancient Jewish scholars. The Tannaim were direct transmitters of uncodified oral tradition; the Amoraim
Amoraim
expounded upon and clarified the oral law after its initial codification. CONTENTS * 1 The Amoraic era * 2 Prominent Amoraim
Amoraim
* 2.1 First generation (approx
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Land Of Israel
The LAND OF ISRAEL (Hebrew : אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל‬, Modern Eretz Yisrael Tiberian ʼÉreṣ Yiśrāʼēl) is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant . Related biblical, religious and historical English terms include the Land of Canaan , the Promised Land , the Holy Land , and Palestine (see also Israel
Israel
(other) ). The definitions of the limits of this territory vary between passages in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, with specific mentions in Genesis 15, Exodus 23, Numbers 34 and Ezekiel
Ezekiel
47. Nine times elsewhere in the Bible, the settled land is referred as "from Dan to Beersheba
Beersheba
, and three times it is referred as "from the entrance of Hamath unto the brook of Egypt” (1 Kings 8:65, 1 Chronicles 13:5 and 2 Chronicles 7:8)
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Pharisees
The PHARISEES /ˈfærəˌsiːz/ were at various times a political party , a social movement , and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple
Second Temple
Judaism
Judaism
. After the destruction of the Second Temple
Second Temple
in 70 CE, Pharisaic beliefs became the foundational, liturgical and ritualistic basis for Rabbinic Judaism . Conflicts between Pharisees
Pharisees
and Sadducees took place in the context of much broader and longstanding social and religious conflicts among Jews, made worse by the Roman conquest. Another conflict was cultural, between those who favored Hellenization (the Sadducees) and those who resisted it (the Pharisees)
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Tannaim
TANNAIM (Hebrew : תנאים‎ , singular Hebrew : תנא‎ , Tanna "repeaters", "teachers" ) were the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah
Mishnah
, from approximately 10-220 CE. The period of the Tannaim, also referred to as the Mishnaic period, lasted about 210 years. It came after the period of the Zugot ("pairs"), and was immediately followed by the period of the Amoraim ("interpreters"). The root tanna (אתנא‎) is the Talmudic Aramaic equivalent for the Hebrew root shanah (שנה‎), which also is the root-word of Mishnah. The verb shanah (שנה‎) literally means "to repeat " and is used to mean "to learn". The Mishnaic period is commonly divided up into five periods according to generations. There are approximately 120 known Tannaim. The Tannaim lived in several areas of the Land of Israel
Land of Israel

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Rabbi Akiva
AKIVA BEN YOSEF ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: עקיבא בן יוסף‎‎‎, c. 50 – 135 CE) widely known as RABBI AKIVA (רבי עקיבא‎), was a tanna of the latter part of the first century and the beginning of the second century (the third tannaitic generation). Rabbi Akiva
Rabbi Akiva
was a leading contributor to the Mishnah
Mishnah
and to Midrash halakha . He is referred to in the Talmud
Talmud
as Rosh la-Hakhamim "Chief of the Sages"
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Diaspora
A DIASPORA (from Greek διασπορά, "scattering, dispersion") is a scattered population whose origin lies within a smaller geographic locale. Diaspora
Diaspora
can also refer to the movement of the population from its original homeland. Diaspora
Diaspora
has come to refer particularly to historical mass dispersions of an involuntary nature, such as the expulsion of Jews from Judea and the fleeing of Greeks after the fall of Constantinople
Constantinople

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Piyyut
A PIYYUT or PIYUT (plural PIYYUTIM or PIYUTIM, Hebrew פּיּוּטִים / פיוטים, פּיּוּטִ / פיוט pronounced ; from Greek ποιητής poiētḗs "poet") is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services . Piyyutim have been written since Temple times. Most piyyutim are in Hebrew or Aramaic , and most follow some poetic scheme, such as an acrostic following the order of the Hebrew alphabet or spelling out the name of the author. Many piyyutim are familiar to regular attendees of synagogue services. For example, the best-known piyyut may be Adon Olam ("Master of the World"), sometimes (but almost certainly wrongly) attributed to Solomon ibn Gabirol in 11th century Spain
Spain

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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, Ivrit ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel
Israel
, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew
Hebrew
in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew
Hebrew
date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew
Hebrew
belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew
Hebrew
is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew
Hebrew
had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt
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Zohar
The ZOHAR ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: זֹהַר‎, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance") is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah . It is a group of books including commentary on the mystical aspects of the Torah
Torah
(the five books of Moses
Moses
) and scriptural interpretations as well as material on mysticism , mythical cosmogony , and mystical psychology . The Zohar
Zohar
contains discussions of the nature of God
God
, the origin and structure of the universe, the nature of souls, redemption, the relationship of Ego to Darkness and "true self" to "The Light of God", and the relationship between the "universal energy" and man. Its scriptural exegesis can be considered an esoteric form of the Rabbinic literature known as Midrash
Midrash
, which elaborates on the Torah
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— * Jerusalem Ta
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Karaite Judaism
KARAITE JUDAISM or KARAISM (also spelt QARAITE JUDAISM or QARAISM), (/ˈkærə.aɪt/ or /ˈkærə.ɪzəm/ ; Hebrew : יהדות קראית‎, Modern Yahadut Qara'it from, Tiberian Qārāʾîm; meaning "Readers") is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law ) and theology . It is distinct from mainstream Rabbinic Judaism , which considers the Oral Torah , as codified in the Talmud and subsequent works, to be authoritative interpretations of the Torah . Karaites maintain that all of the divine commandments handed down to Moses
Moses
by God
God
were recorded in the written Torah without additional Oral Law or explanation
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Reconstructionist Judaism
RECONSTRUCTIONIST JUDAISM (Hebrew : יהדות רקונסטרוציוניסטית‎, yahadút rekonstruktsyonistit, or יהדות מתחדשת‎, yahadút mitkhadéshet) is a modern Jewish movement that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization and is based on the conceptions developed by Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983). The movement originated as a semi-organized stream within Conservative Judaism and developed from the late 1920s to 1940s, before it seceded in 1955 and established a rabbinical college in 1967. There is substantial theological diversity within the movement. Halakha , the collective body of Jewish Law, is not considered binding, but is treated as a valuable cultural remnant that should be upheld unless there is reason for the contrary
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Jewish Principles Of Faith
There is no established formulation of PRINCIPLES OF FAITH that are recognized by all branches of Judaism
Judaism
. Central authority in Judaism is not vested in any one person or group - although the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
, the supreme Jewish religious court, would fulfill this role when it is re-established - but rather in Judaism's sacred writings , laws , and traditions . The various principles of faith that have been enumerated over the centuries carry no weight other than that imparted to them by the fame and scholarship of their respective authors. Judaism
Judaism
affirms the existence and uniqueness of God
God
and stresses performance of deeds or commandments alongside adherence to a strict belief system
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