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Rebbe
Rebbe
Rebbe
(Hebrew: רבי‬: /ˈrɛbɛ/ or /ˈrɛbi/[1]) is a Yiddish word derived from the Hebrew word rabbi, which means "master, teacher, or mentor"
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Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism
Judaism
(also known as Liberal Judaism
Judaism
or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai. A liberal strand of Judaism, it is characterized by a lesser stress on ritual and personal observance, regarding Jewish Law as non-binding and the individual Jew as autonomous, and openness to external influences and progressive values
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Piyyut
A piyyut or piyut (plural piyyutim or piyutim, Hebrew: פִּיּוּטִים / פיוטים, פִּיּוּט / פיוט‬ pronounced [piˈjut, pijuˈtim]; from Greek ποιητής poiētḗs "poet") is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. Piyyutim have been written since Temple times. Most piyyutim are in Hebrew or Aramaic, and most follow some poetic scheme, such as an acrostic following the order of the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
or spelling out the name of the author. Many piyyutim are familiar to regular attendees of synagogue services. For example, the best-known piyyut may be Adon Olam
Adon Olam
("Master of the World"), sometimes (but almost certainly wrongly) attributed to Solomon ibn Gabirol
Solomon ibn Gabirol
in 11th century Spain
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Diaspora
A diaspora is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale. [1][2] In particular, Diaspora
Diaspora
has come to refer to involuntary mass dispersions of a population from its indigenous territories, most notably the expulsion of Jews from Judea
Judea
and the fleeing of Greeks
Greeks
after the fall of Constantinople
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Land Of Israel
The Land of Israel
Israel
(Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל‬, Modern Eretz Yisrael, Tiberian ʼÉreṣ Yiśrāʼēl) is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant. Related biblical, religious and historical English terms include the Land of Canaan, the Promised Land, the Holy Land, and Palestine (see also Israel
Israel
(other)). The definitions of the limits of this territory vary between passages in the Hebrew Bible, with specific mentions in Genesis 15, Exodus 23, Numbers 34 and Ezekiel
Ezekiel
47
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Amoraim
Amoraim
Amoraim
(Aramaic: plural אמוראים‬ ʔamoraˈʔim, singular Amora אמורא‬ ʔamoˈʁa; "those who say" or "those who speak over the people", or "spokesmen")[1] refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah. They were concentrated in Babylonia
Babylonia
and the Land of Israel. Their legal discussions and debates were eventually codified in the Gemara. The Amoraim
Amoraim
followed the Tannaim in the sequence of ancient Jewish scholars. The Tannaim were direct transmitters of uncodified oral tradition; the Amoraim
Amoraim
expounded upon and clarified the oral law after its initial codification.Contents1 The Amoraic era 2 Prominent Amoraim2.1 First generation (approx. 230–250 CE) 2.2 Second generation (approx. 250–290 CE) 2.3 Third generation (approx
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Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
Judaism
(known as Masorti Judaism
Judaism
outside North America) is a major Jewish denomination, which views Jewish Law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development. The Conservative rabbinate therefore employs modern historical-critical research, rather than only traditional methods and sources, and lends great weight to its constituency when determining its stance on matters of Law. The movement considers its approach as the authentic and most appropriate continuation of halakhic discourse, maintaining both fealty to received forms and flexibility in their interpretation
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Rabbi Akiva
Akiba ben Yosef (Hebrew: עקיבא בן יוסף‬‎, c. 50–135 CE)[1] also known as Rabbi Akiva
Rabbi Akiva
(רבי עקיבא‬), was a tanna of the latter part of the first century and the beginning of the second century (the third tannaitic generation). Rabbi Akiva
Rabbi Akiva
was a leading contributor to the Mishnah
Mishnah
and to Midrash
Midrash
halakha. He is referred to in the Talmud
Talmud
as Rosh la-Hakhamim "Chief of the Sages"
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Tannaim
Tannaim (Hebrew: תנאים‬ [tanaˈʔim], singular Hebrew: תנא‬ [taˈna], Tanna "repeaters", "teachers"[1]) were the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah, from approximately 10-220 CE. The period of the Tannaim, also referred to as the Mishnaic period, lasted about 210 years. It came after the period of the Zugot ("pairs"), and was immediately followed by the period of the Amoraim
Amoraim
("interpreters").[2] The root tanna (אתנא‬) is the Talmudic Aramaic equivalent for the Hebrew root shanah (שנה‬), which also is the root-word of Mishnah. The verb shanah (שנה‬) literally means "to repeat [what one was taught]" and is used to mean "to learn". The Mishnaic period is commonly divided up into five periods according to generations. There are approximately 120 known Tannaim. The Tannaim lived in several areas of the Land of Israel
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Pharisees
The Pharisees
Pharisees
/ˈfærəˌsiːz/ were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple
Second Temple
Judaism. After the destruction of the Second Temple
Second Temple
in 70 CE, Pharisaic beliefs became the foundational, liturgical and ritualistic basis for Rabbinic Judaism. Conflicts between Pharisees
Pharisees
and Sadducees
Sadducees
took place in the context of much broader and longstanding social and religious conflicts among Jews, made worse by the Roman conquest.[2] Another conflict was cultural, between those who favored Hellenization
Hellenization
(the Sadducees) and those who resisted it (the Pharisees)
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Nevi'im
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t e Nevi'im
Nevi'im
(/nəviˈiːm, nəˈviːɪm/;[1] Hebrew: נְבִיאִים‬ Nəḇî'îm, lit. "spokespersons", "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(the Tanakh), between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim
Ketuvim
(writings). The Nevi'im
Nevi'im
are divided into two groups
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Outline Of Judaism
Outline
Outline
may refer to: Outline
Outline
(list), a document summary, in hierarchical list format Outline
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Karaite Judaism
Karaite Judaism
Judaism
or Karaism (also spelt Qaraite Judaism
Judaism
or Qaraism), (/ˈkærə.aɪt/ or /ˈkærə.ɪzəm/; Hebrew: יהדות קראית‬‬, Modern Yahadut Qara'it from, Tiberian Qārāʾîm, meaning "Readers")[a] is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh
Tanakh
alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology. It is distinct from mainstream Rabbinic Judaism, which considers the Oral Torah, as codified in the Talmud
Talmud
and subsequent works, to be authoritative interpretations of the Torah. Karaites maintain that all of the divine commandments handed down to Moses
Moses
by God
God
were recorded in the written Torah
Torah
without additional Oral Law or explanation
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Rabbinic Literature
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term Sifrut Hazal (Hebrew: ספרות חז"ל‎ "Literature [of our] sages," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim, Midrash
Midrash
(Hebrew: מדרש‎), and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts. This article discusses rabbinic literature in both senses
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Reconstructionist Judaism
Reconstructionist Judaism
Judaism
(Hebrew: יהדות רקונסטרוקציוניסטית‬, yahadút rekonstruktsyonistit, or יהדות מתחדשת‬, yahadút mitkhadéshet) is a modern Jewish movement that views Judaism
Judaism
as a progressively evolving civilization and is based on the conceptions developed by Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983). The movement originated as a semi-organized stream within Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
and developed from the late 1920s to 1940s, before it seceded in 1955[1] and established a rabbinical college in 1967.[2] There is substantial theological diversity within the movement. Halakha, the collective body of Jewish Law, is not considered binding, but is treated as a valuable cultural remnant that should be upheld unless there is reason for the contrary
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Jewish Principles Of Faith
There is no established formulation of principles of faith that are recognized by all branches of Judaism. Central authority in Judaism
Judaism
is not vested in any one person or group - although the Sanhedrin, the supreme Jewish religious court, would fulfill this role when it is re-established - but rather in Judaism's sacred writings, laws, and traditions. The various principles of faith that have been enumerated over the centuries carry no weight other than that imparted to them by the fame and scholarship of their respective authors. Judaism
Judaism
affirms the existence and uniqueness of God
God
and stresses performance of deeds or commandments alongside adherence to a strict belief system
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