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Real Versus Nominal Value
The distinction between REAL VALUE and NOMINAL VALUE occurs in many fields. From a philosophical viewpoint, nominal value represents an accepted condition, which is a goal or an approximation, as opposed to the real value, which is always present. Often a nominal value is de facto rather than an exact, typical, or average measurement. CONTENTS * 1 Measurement * 2 Engineering
Engineering
* 3 See also * 4 Notes MEASUREMENT See also: Nominal size In measurement, a nominal value is often a value existing in name only; it is assigned as a convenient designation rather than calculated by data analysis or following usual rounding methods. The use of nominal values can be based on de facto standards or some technical standards . All real measurements have some variation depending on the accuracy and precision of the test method and the measurement uncertainty . The use of reported values often involves engineering tolerances
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Pump
A PUMP is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases ), or sometimes slurries , by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary ), and consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity , engines , or wind power , come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large industrial pumps. Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping water from wells , aquarium filtering , pond filtering and aeration , in the car industry for water-cooling and fuel injection , in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for operating cooling towers
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NiMH
A NICKEL–METAL HYDRIDE BATTERY, abbreviated NIMH or NI–MH, is a type of rechargeable battery . The chemical reaction at the positive electrode is similar to that of the nickel–cadmium cell (NiCd), with both using nickel oxide hydroxide (NiOOH). However, the negative electrodes use a hydrogen-absorbing alloy instead of cadmium . A NiMH battery can have two to three times the capacity of an equivalent size NiCd , and its energy density can approach that of a lithium-ion battery
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Alternating Current
ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. Alternating current
Alternating current
is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences, and it is the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances , televisions and electric lamps into a wall socket . A common source of DC power is a battery cell in a flashlight . The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage . The usual waveform of alternating current in most electric power circuits is a sine wave . In certain applications, different waveforms are used, such as triangular or square waves
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Power Factor
In electrical engineering , the POWER FACTOR of an AC electrical power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load to the apparent power in the circuit, and is a dimensionless number in the closed interval of −1 to 1. A power factor of less than one means that the voltage and current waveforms are not in phase, reducing the instantaneous product of the two waveforms (V × I). Real power is the capacity of the circuit for performing work in a particular time. Apparent power is the product of the current and voltage of the circuit. Due to energy stored in the load and returned to the source, or due to a non-linear load that distorts the wave shape of the current drawn from the source, the apparent power will be greater than the real power. A negative power factor occurs when the device (which is normally the load) generates power, which then flows back towards the source, which is normally considered the generator
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European Union
The EUROPEAN UNION (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe
Europe
. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture , fisheries , and regional development . Within the Schengen Area , passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency
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Voltage
VOLTAGE, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, ELECTRIC PRESSURE or ELECTRIC TENSION (formally denoted ∆V or ∆U, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm\'s or Kirchhoff\'s circuit laws ) is the difference in electric potential energy between two points per unit electric charge . The voltage between two points is equal to the work done per unit of charge against a static electric field to move the test charge between two points. This is measured in units of volts (a joule per coulomb ). Voltage
Voltage
can be caused by static electric fields, by electric current through a magnetic field , by time-varying magnetic fields, or some combination of these three. A voltmeter can be used to measure the voltage (or potential difference) between two points in a system; often a common reference potential such as the ground of the system is used as one of the points
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NiCd
The NICKEL–CADMIUM BATTERY (NICD BATTERY or NICAD BATTERY) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes . The abbreviation NiCd is derived from the chemical symbols of nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd): the abbreviation NiCad is a registered trademark of SAFT Corporation , although this brand name is commonly used to describe all Ni–Cd batteries. Wet-cell nickel-cadmium batteries were invented in 1899. Among rechargeable battery technologies, NiCd rapidly lost market share in the 1990s, to NiMH
NiMH
and Li-ion batteries; market share dropped by 80%. A NiCd battery has a terminal voltage during discharge of around 1.2 volts which decreases little until nearly the end of discharge
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Rechargeable Batteries
A RECHARGEABLE BATTERY, STORAGE BATTERY, SECONDARY CELL, or ACCUMULATOR is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, as opposed to a disposable or primary battery , which is supplied fully charged and discarded after use. It is composed of one or more electrochemical cells . The term "accumulator" is used as it accumulates and stores energy through a reversible electrochemical reaction . Rechargeable batteries are produced in many different shapes and sizes, ranging from button cells to megawatt systems connected to stabilize an electrical distribution network . Several different combinations of electrode materials and electrolytes are used, including lead–acid , nickel–cadmium (NiCd), nickel–metal hydride (NiMH), lithium-ion (Li-ion), and lithium-ion polymer (Li-ion polymer)
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JPL
The JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA
NASA
field center in La Cañada Flintridge, California and Pasadena, California
Pasadena, California
, United States
United States
. The JPL is owned by NASA
NASA
and managed by the nearby California Institute of Technology (Caltech) for NASA
NASA
. The laboratory's primary function is the construction and operation of planetary robotic spacecraft , though it also conducts Earth-orbit and astronomy missions. It is also responsible for operating NASA's Deep Space Network
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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ASTM
ASTM INTERNATIONAL is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services . Some 12,575 ASTM voluntary consensus standards operate globally. The organization's headquarters is in West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania , about 5 mi (8.0 km) northwest of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
. Founded in 1898 as the American Section of the International Association for Testing Materials, ASTM International
ASTM International
predates other standards organizations such as the BSI (1901), IEC (1906), DIN (1917), ANSI (1918), AFNOR (1926), and ISO (1947)
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Metrology
METROLOGY, as defined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), is "the science of measurement, embracing both experimental and theoretical determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology". It establishes a common understanding of units, crucial in linking human activities. Modern metrology has its roots in the French Revolution
French Revolution
's political motivation to standardise units in France, when a length standard taken from a natural source was proposed. This led to the creation of the decimal-based metric system in 1795, establishing a set of standards for other types of measurements. Several other countries adopted the metric system between 1795 and 1875; to ensure conformity between the countries, the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was established by the Metre Convention
Metre Convention

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Lead–acid Battery
The LEAD–ACID BATTERY was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté
Gaston Planté
and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery . Despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, its ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells have a relatively large power-to-weight ratio . These features, along with their low cost, make them attractive for use in motor vehicles to provide the high current required by automobile starter motors . As they are inexpensive compared to newer technologies, lead–acid batteries are widely used even when surge current is not important and other designs could provide higher energy densities . Large-format lead–acid designs are widely used for storage in backup power supplies in cell phone towers, high-availability settings like hospitals, and stand-alone power systems
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Significant Figures
The SIGNIFICANT FIGURES of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution . This includes all digits except: * All leading zeros ; * Trailing zeros when they are merely placeholders to indicate the scale of the number (exact rules are explained at identifying significant figures ); and * Spurious digits introduced, for example, by calculations carried out to greater precision than that of the original data, or measurements reported to a greater precision than the equipment supports. Significance arithmetic are approximate rules for roughly maintaining significance throughout a computation. The more sophisticated scientific rules are known as propagation of uncertainty
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Volt
The VOLT (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential , electric potential difference (voltage ), and electromotive force . It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827). CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Josephson junction definition * 2 Water-flow analogy * 3 Common voltages * 4 History * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DEFINITIONOne volt is defined as the difference in electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points. It is also equal to the potential difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb . Additionally, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it
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