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Ratification
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent where the agent lacked authority to legally bind the principal. Ratification defines the international act whereby a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intended to show their consent by such an act. In the case of bilateral treaties, ratification is usually accomplished by exchanging the requisite instruments, while in the case of multilateral treaties the usual procedure is for the depositary to collect the ratifications of all states, keeping all parties informed of the situation. The institution of ratification grants states the necessary time-frame to seek the required approval for the treaty on the domestic level and to enact the necessary legislation to give domestic effect to that treaty.[1] The term applies to private contract law, international treaties, and constitutions in federations such as the United States
United States
and Canada
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Principal (commercial Law)
In commercial law, a principal is a person, legal or natural, who authorizes an agent to act to create one or more legal relationships with a third party. This branch of law is called agency and relies on the common law proposition qui facit per alium, facit per se (Latin "he who acts through another, acts personally"). It is a parallel concept to vicarious liability and strict liability (in which one person is held liable for the acts or omissions of another) in criminal law or torts.Contents1 Concepts 2 Summary of law2.1 Authority 2.2 Liability2.2.1 Agent to Principal 2.2.2 Principal to Agent 2.2.3 Third Party to Principal2.3 Duties 2.4 Remedies against agent2.4.1 Constructive trust 2.4.2 Avoidance 2.4.3 Indemnification 2.4.4 Negligence (for not following instructions)2.5 Undisclosed principal 2.6 Termination3 Economic analysis 4 See also 5 ReferencesConcepts[edit] In a busy commercial world, the smooth flow of trade depends on the use of agents
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Diet Of Japan
Government (150)   LDP–PJK (125)    Kōmeitō
Kōmeitō
(25) Opposition (92)   DP (42)   JCP (14)   Ishin (11)   SDP–LP (6)   CDP (6)   Kibo (3)   Energize (2)   Okinawa Whirlwind (2)   Kokumin no Koe (2)   Independents (4)House of Representatives political groupsGovernment (312)   LDP (283)    Kōmeitō
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of AustraliaFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair"[N 1]Capital Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest city SydneyNational language English[N 2]DemonymAustralian Aussie
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Australian Government
The Government
Government
of the Commonwealth of Australia
Australia
(also referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, or the Federal Government) is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The Commonwealth of Australia
Australia
was formed in 1901 as a result of an agreement among six self-governing British colonies, which became the six states. The terms of this contract are embodied in the Australian Constitution, which was drawn up at a Constitutional Convention and ratified by the people of the colonies at referendums
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Australian Parliament
Government (76) Coalition      Liberal (45)      LNP (21)[a]      National (10)Opposition (69)      Labor (69)Crossbench (5)      Greens (1)      Katter (1)      Xenophon (1)      Independent (2)[b]  Senate political groupsGovernment (30) Coalition      Liberal (22)      LNP (5)[c]      National (2)      CLP (1)[d]Opposition (26)      Labor (26)Crossbench (20)      Greens (9)      One Nation (3)      Xenophon (2)      Hinch (1)      Liberal Democrat (1)      Conservatives (1)[e]      Independent (3)[f][g][h]  ElectionsHouse of R
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Section 51(xxix) Of The Australian Constitution
Section 51(xxix) of the Australian Constitution
Australian Constitution
is a subsection of Section 51 of the Australian Constitution that gives the Commonwealth Parliament of Australia
Parliament of Australia
the right to legislate with respect to "external affairs".[1] In recent years, most attention has focused on the use of the power to pass legislation giving effect within Australia to its obligations under international treaties and conventions
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Governor-General Of Australia
At Her Majesty's pleasure (under convention, usually 5 years) [1]Formation 1 January 1901First holder The Earl
Earl
of HopetounSalary $425,000Website gg.gov.auAustraliaThis article is part of a series on the politics and government of AustraliaConstitutionConstitution of AustraliaStatute of Westminster Adoption Act Australia
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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House Of Councilors
Coordinates: 35°40′35.5″N 139°44′40.5″E / 35.676528°N 139.744583°E / 35.676528; 139.744583House of Councillors 参議院 SangiinTypeTypeUpper houseLeadershipPresidentChūichi Date, LDP (caucus: independent) Since 1 August 2016Vice PresidentAkira Gunji, DP (caucus: independent) Since 1 August 2016StructureSeats 242Political groupsGovernment (150)   LDP–PJK (125)    Kōmeitō
Kōmeitō
(25) Opposition (92)   DP (42)   JCP (14)   Ishin (11)   SDP–LP (6)   
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Two-thirds Majority
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority. Related concepts regarding alternatives to the majority vote requirement include a majority of the entire membership and a majority of the fixed membership. A supermajority can also be specified based on the entire membership or fixed membership rather than on those present and voting. Parliamentary procedure
Parliamentary procedure
requires that any action of a deliberative assembly that may alter the rights of a minority has a supermajority requirement, s
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House Of Representatives Of Japan
Coordinates: 35°40′30.6″N 139°44′41.8″E / 35.675167°N 139.744944°E / 35.675167; 139.744944This article may require cleanup to meet's quality standards. The specific problem is: Diagram colors do not match up with those in the table/legend. Please help improve this article if you can
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Emperor Of Japan
The Emperor
Emperor
of Japan
Japan
is the head of the Imperial Family and the traditional head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." Historically, he was also the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the Emperor
Emperor
is called Tennō (天皇), which translates to "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado (帝 or 御門) for the Emperor
Emperor
was once common, but is now considered obsolete.[1] Currently, the Emperor
Emperor
of Japan
Japan
is the only head of state in the world with the English title of "Emperor"
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New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Hampshire
is a state in the New England
New England
region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine
Maine
and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the east, and the Canadian province
Canadian province
of Quebec
Quebec
to the north. New Hampshire
Hampshire
is the 5th smallest by land area and the 10th least populous of the 50 states. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, and it was the first to establish its own state constitution
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Virginia
Virginia
Virginia
(/vərˈdʒɪniə/ ( listen); officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern[6] and Mid-Atlantic[7] regions of the United States
United States
located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia
Virginia
is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America,[8] and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U.S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach
is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision
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New York City
Bronx, Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island)Historic colonies New Netherland Province of New YorkSettled 1624Consolidated 1898Named for James, Duke of YorkGovernment[2] • Type Mayor–Council • Body New York City
New York City
Council • Mayor Bill de Blasio
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