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Rate Of Reaction
The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted into products. For example, the oxidative rusting of iron under Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
is a slow reaction that can take many years, but the combustion of cellulose in a fire is a reaction that takes place in fractions of a second. For most reactions, the rate decreases as the reaction proceeds. Chemical kinetics
Chemical kinetics
is the part of physical chemistry that studies reaction rates
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Rusting
Rust
Rust
is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture. Several forms of rust are distinguishable both visually and by spectroscopy, and form under different circumstances.[1] Rust
Rust
consists of hydrated iron(III) oxides Fe2O3·nH2O and iron(III) oxide-hydroxide (FeO(OH), Fe(OH)3). Given sufficient time, oxygen, and water, any iron mass will eventually convert entirely to rust and disintegrate. Surface rust is flaky and friable, and it provides no protection to the underlying iron, unlike the formation of patina on copper surfaces. Rusting is the common term for corrosion of iron and its alloys, such as steel. Many other metals undergo similar corrosion, but the resulting oxides are not commonly called rust.[citation needed] Other forms of rust exist, like the result of reactions between iron and chloride in an environment deprived of oxygen
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Order (chemistry)
In chemical kinetics, the order of reaction with respect to a given substance (such as reactant, catalyst or product) is defined as the index, or exponent, to which its concentration term in the rate equation is raised.[1] For the typical rate equation of form r = k [ A ] x [ B ] y . . . displaystyle r;=;k[mathrm A ]^ x [mathrm B ]^ y ... , where [A], [B], ... are concentrations, the reaction orders (or partial reaction orders) are x for substance A and y for substance B, etc. The overall reaction order is the sum x + y + ...
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Avogadro Constant
In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant
Avogadro constant
(named after the scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole
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Extent Of Reaction
In physical chemistry, extent of reaction is a quantity that measures the extent in which the reaction proceeds. It is usually denoted by the Greek letter ξ. The extent of a reaction has units of amount (moles). It was introduced by the Belgian scientist Théophile de Donder.Contents1 Definition 2 Relations 3 Use 4 ReferencesDefinition[edit] Consider the reactionA ⇌ BSuppose an infinitesimal amount dξ of the reactant A that changes into B
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Catalyst
Catalysis
Catalysis
(/kəˈtælɪsɪs/) is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst[1] (/ˈkætəlɪst/), which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Often only tiny amounts of catalyst are required in principle.[2] In general, the reactions occur faster with a catalyst because they require less activation energy. In catalyzed mechanisms, the catalyst usually reacts to form a temporary intermediate which then regenerates the original catalyst in a cyclic process. Catalysts may be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are dispersed in the same phase (usually gaseous or liquid) as the reactant molecules. A heterogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are not in the same phase as the reactants, which are typically gases or liquids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the solid catalyst
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Phase (matter)
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.[1][2]:86[3]:3 Examples of physical properties include density, index of refraction, magnetization and chemical composition. A simple description is that a phase is a region of material that is chemically uniform, physically distinct, and (often) mechanically separable. In a system consisting of ice and water in a glass jar, the ice cubes are one phase, the water is a second phase, and the humid air is a third phase over the ice and water. The glass of the jar is another separate phase
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Solution
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. The mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is commonly the case
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Collision Theory
Collision theory
Collision theory
is a theory proposed independently by Max Trautz in 1916[1] and William Lewis in 1918, that qualitatively explains how chemical reactions occur and why reaction rates differ for different reactions.[2] The collision theory states that when suitable particles of the reactant hit each other, only a certain percentage of the collisions cause any noticeable or significant chemical change; these successful changes are called successful collisions. The successful collisions must have enough energy, also known as activation energy, at the moment of impact to break the preexisting bonds and form all new bonds. This results in the products of the reaction
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Frequency
Frequency
Frequency
is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.[1] It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency.[2] For example, if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats)
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Collision
A collision is an event in which two or more bodies exert forces on each other for a relatively short time. Although the most common colloquial use of the word "collision" refers to incidents in which two or more objects collide with great force, the scientific use of the word "collision" implies nothing about the magnitude of the force. Some examples of physical interactions that scientists would consider collisions:An insect touches its antenna to the leaf of a plant. The antenna is said to collide with leaf. A cat walks through the grass. Each contact that its paws make with the ground is a collision
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Pressure
Pressure
Pressure
(symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure
Gauge pressure
(also spelled gage pressure)[a] is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit
SI unit
of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre; similarly, the pound-force per square inch (psi) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and US customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as ​1⁄760 of this
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Temperature
Temperature
Temperature
is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. Temperature
Temperature
is measured with a thermometer, historically calibrated in various temperature scales and units of measurement. The most commonly used scales are the Celsius
Celsius
scale, denoted in °C (informally, degrees centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale
Fahrenheit scale
(°F), and the Kelvin
Kelvin
scale. The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities. The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at which the thermal motion of all fundamental particles in matter reaches a minimum. Although classically described as motionless, particles still possess a finite zero-point energy in the quantum mechanical description
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Mass Balance
A mass balance, also called a material balance, is an application of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems. By accounting for material entering and leaving a system, mass flows can be identified which might have been unknown, or difficult to measure without this technique. The exact conservation law used in the analysis of the system depends on the context of the problem, but all revolve around mass conservation, i.e. that matter cannot disappear or be created spontaneously.[1]:59–62 Therefore, mass balances are used widely in engineering and environmental analyses. For example, mass balance theory is used to design chemical reactors, to analyse alternative processes to produce chemicals, as well as to model pollution dispersion and other processes of physical systems. Closely related and complementary analysis techniques include the population balance, energy balance and the somewhat more complex entropy balance
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Arrhenius Equation
The Arrhenius equation
Arrhenius equation
is a formula for the temperature dependence of reaction rates. The equation was proposed by Svante Arrhenius
Svante Arrhenius
in 1889, based on the work of Dutch chemist Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff
who had noted in 1884 that Van 't Hoff's equation for the temperature dependence of equilibrium constants suggests such a formula for the rates of both forward and reverse reactions. This equation has a vast and important application in determining rate of chemical reactions and for calculation of energy of activation. Arrhenius provided a physical justification and interpretation for the formula.[1][2][3] Currently, it is best seen as an empirical relationship.[4]:188 It can be used to model the temperature variation of diffusion coefficients, population of crystal vacancies, creep rates, and many other thermally-induced processes/reactions
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Room Temperature
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing
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