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Rashid Ali Al-Gaylani
Rashid Ali al-Gaylani[note 1] (Arabic: رشيد عالي الكيلاني‎, Arabic pronunciation: [raʃiːd ʕaːliː al.keːlaːniː]) (1892 – August 28, 1965) was an Iraqi politician who served as Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of the Kingdom of Iraq
Kingdom of Iraq
on three occasions: from March to November 1933, from March 1940 to February 1941 and from April to May 1941. He is chiefly remembered as an Arab nationalist who attempted to remove the British influence from Iraq
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Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG OM CH TD DL FRS RA (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. As a Member of Parliament (MP), he represented five constituencies during his career. As Prime Minister, Churchill oversaw British victory in the Second World War. Ideologically an economic liberal and British imperialist, he was a member of the Liberal Party from 1904 to 1924 before joining the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955. Born in Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
to an aristocratic family, Churchill was the son of an English politician and an American socialite. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer
Boer
War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns
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Operation Compass
 United Kingdom British India Australia  Free France ItalyCommanders and leadersArchibald Wavell Henry Maitland Wilson Richard O'Connor Iven Mackay Rodolfo Graziani Giuseppe Tellera † Pietro Maletti † Annibale Bergonzoli (POW)Strength36,000 soldiers 120 guns 275 tanks 142 aircraft 150,000 soldiers 1,600 guns 600 tankettes and tanks 331 aircraftCasualties and losses500 killed 1,373 wounded 55 missing 26 aircraft 5,500+ killed 10,000 wounded 133,298 captured 420 tanks 845 guns 564 aircraft (incl
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Coup D'état
A coup d'état (/ˌkuː deɪˈtɑː/ ( listen); French: [ku deta]), also known simply as a coup, a putsch (/pʊtʃ/), golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.[1]Contents1 Terminology1.1 Etymology 1.2 Use of the phrase 1.3 Putsch 1.4 Pronunciamiento2 History 3 Types 4 Predictors 5 Coup-proofing 6 Democratization 7 Repression after failed coups, and counter-coups 8 International responses 9 In Popular Media 10 Current leaders who assumed power via coups d'état 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 Bibliography 15 External linksTerminology[edit] Etymology[edit] Coup is when a country or a team attempt at taking something that is not theirs. The phrase coup d'état is French, literally meaning a "stroke of state" or "blow against the state"
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Axis Powers
The Axis powers
Axis powers
(German: Achsenmächte, Italian: Potenze dell'Asse, Japanese: 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces. The Axis powers
Axis powers
agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity. The Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Germany, Italy, and Japan to secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mid-1930s. The first step was the treaty signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Muhammad
Muhammad[n 1] (Arabic: محمد‎; pronounced [muħammad];[n 2] French: Mahomet /məˈhɒmɪt/; Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)[1] was the founder of Islam.[2][3] According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet and God's messenger, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.[3][4][5][6] He is viewed as the final prophet of God
God
in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief.[n 3]
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Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (1930)
The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930 was a treaty of alliance between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the British-Mandate-controlled administration of the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq. The treaty was between the governments of George V of the United Kingdom and Faisal I of Iraq. High Commissioner Francis Humphrys signed for the United Kingdom and Prime Minister Nuri as-Said signed for Iraq
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Ghazi Of Iraq
Ghazi bin Faisal (Arabic: غازي ابن فيصل‎ Ġāzī bin Fayṣal) (2 May 1912 – 4 April 1939) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq
Kingdom of Iraq
from 1933 to 1939 having been briefly Crown Prince
Crown Prince
of the Kingdom of Syria
Kingdom of Syria
in 1920. He was born in Mecca, the only son of Faisal I,[3] the first King of Iraq.Contents1 Early life 2 Flying carpet 3 Simele
Simele
Massacre 4 King of Iraq 5 Death 6 Marriage and children 7 Ancestry 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Ghazi was the only son of Faisal (later to become King Faisal I of Iraq) and Huzaima bint Nasser. In his childhood Ghazi was left with his grandfather, Hussein bin Ali, the Hashemite
Hashemite
Grand Sharif of Mecca and head of the royal house of Hashim, while his father was occupied with travel and in military campaigns against the Ottomans
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Haj Amin Al-Husseini
Mohammed
Mohammed
Amin al-Husseini
Amin al-Husseini
(Arabic: محمد أمين الحسيني‎;[5] c. 1897[6][7] – 4 July 1974) was a Palestinian Arab nationalist
Arab nationalist
and Muslim
Muslim
leader in Mandatory Palestine.[8] Al-Husseini was the scion of a family of Jerusalemite notables,[9] who trace their origins to the eponymous grandson of Muhammad.[10] After receiving an education in Islamic, Ottoman, and Catholic schools, he went on to serve in the Ottoman army in World War I. At war's end he stationed himself in Damascus
Damascus
as a supporter of the Arab Kingdom of Syria. Following the Franco-Syrian War
Franco-Syrian War
and the collapse of Arab Hashemite
Hashemite
rule in Damascus, his early position on pan-Arabism shifted to a form of local nationalism for Palestinian Arabs and he moved back to Jerusalem
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Regent
A regent (from the Latin
Latin
regens,[1] "[one] ruling"[2]) is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated."[3] The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as "queen regent". If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent
Regent
ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out
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Emir
An emir (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/; Arabic: أمير‎ ʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr]), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is emira (أميرة ʾamīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate" is analogous to a sovereign principality.[1] Contents1 Origins 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles 3 Military ranks and titles 4 Other uses 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 NotesOrigins[edit] Emir
Emir
of Kano, Sanusi Lamido SanusiHRH Crown Prince
Prince
Farouk, amir of the Kingdom of Egypt
Kingdom of Egypt
and the Sudan, on ascension to the throne 1936 as HM King Farouk IAmir, meaning "lord" or "commander-in-chief", is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
root a-m-r, "command"
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Abdul Illah, Regent Of Iraq
'Abd al-Ilah of Hejaz, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Arabic: عبد الإله; also written Abdul Ilah or Abdullah; 14 November 1913 – 14 July 1958) was a cousin and brother-in-law of King Ghazi of Iraq.[2] 'Abd al-Ilah served as Regent for Faisal II from 4 April 1939 to 23 May 1953, when Faisal came of age. He also held the title of Crown Prince of Iraq from 1943.[3] 'Abd al-Ilah was killed along with the rest of the royal family in the 14 July Revolution in 1958 that ended the Hashemite monarchy in Iraq. His body was mutilated, dragged across the streets of Baghdad, and eventually burnt.Contents1 Biography1.1 1941 Iraqi coup d'état 1.2 14 July Revolution2 Military ranks 3 Ancestry 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Further readingBiography[edit]'Abd al-Ilah (holding hat) at Mount Vernon in 1945Son and heir of King Ali ibn Hussein of Hejaz, who was the elder brother of Faisal I of Iraq, and brother of Aliya bint Ali
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Kingdom Of Italy (1861-1946)
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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