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Raphoe
Raphoe
Raphoe
(/ˈræfoʊ/; Irish: Ráth Bhoth) is a town in County Donegal in Ulster, Ireland. It is the main town in the fertile district of East Donegal
Donegal
known as the Laggan, as well as giving its name to the Barony of Raphoe
Raphoe
and also as to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Raphoe and the Church of Ireland
Ireland
(or Anglican) Diocese of Derry
Derry
and Raphoe. The Burn Deele (Irish: An Daoil; also spelled in English as the Burn Dale) is a burn (a small river) that flows a short distance to the south of Raphoe
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Irish Language
The Irish language
Irish language
(Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language,[5] is a Goidelic
Goidelic
language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland
Ireland
and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people, and as a second language by a larger group of non-native speakers. Irish has been the predominant language of the Irish people
Irish people
for most of their recorded history, and they have brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Manx respectively
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James II & VII
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701[1]) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII,[3] from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland. The second surviving son of Charles I, he ascended the throne upon the death of his brother, Charles II. Members of Britain's Protestant political elite increasingly suspected him of being pro-French and pro-Catholic and of having designs on becoming an absolute monarch. When he produced a Catholic heir, a son called James Francis Edward, leading nobles called on his Protestant son-in-law and nephew William III of Orange to land an invasion army from the Dutch Republic, which he did in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. James fled England (and thus was held to have abdicated).[4] He was replaced by his Protestant eldest daughter Mary II and her husband William III
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Cromwellian Conquest Of Ireland
Decisive English Parliamentarian victoryEnglish Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland End of the Confederation of Kilkenny Act for the Settlement of Ireland
Ireland
1652Belligerents Irish Catholic
Catholic
Confederation English Royalists English ParliamentarianNew Model Army Protestant
Protestant
colonistsCommanders and leaders James Butler, Marquess of Ormonde (Aug. 1649 – Dec. 1650) Ulick Burke, Earl of Clanricarde (Dec. 1650 – Apr. 1653) Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
(Aug. 1649 – May 1650) Henry Ireton
Henry Ireton
(May 1650 – Nov. 1651) Charles Fleetwood
Charles Fleetwood
(Nov. 1651 – Apr. 1653)StrengthUp to 60,000 incl
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Irish Rebellion Of 1641
The Irish Rebellion of 1641
Irish Rebellion of 1641
(Irish: Éirí Amach 1641) began as an attempted coup d'état by Irish Catholic
Irish Catholic
gentry, who tried to seize control of the English administration in Ireland
Ireland
to force concessions for Catholics. The coup failed and the rebellion developed into an ethnic conflict between the Gaelic Irish and old English Catholics on one side, and both English-origined Protestants and Scottish/Presbyterian planters on the other. This began a conflict known as the Irish Confederate Wars. The rising was sparked by Catholic fears of an impending invasion of Ireland
Ireland
by anti-Catholic forces of the English Long Parliament
Long Parliament
and the Scottish Covenanters, who were defying the authority of King Charles I (king of England, Scotland, and Ireland)
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Ulster Plantation
The Plantation of Ulster
Ulster
(Irish: Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr)[1] was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulster – a province of Ireland – by people from Great Britain during the reign of King James I. Most of the colonists came from Scotland and England. Small private plantation by wealthy landowners began in 1606,[2] while the official plantation began in 1609. Most of the land colonised was forfeited from the native Gaelic chiefs, several of whom had fled Ireland
Ireland
for mainland Europe in 1607 following the Nine Years' War against English rule in Ireland
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Normans
The Normans
Normans
(Norman: Normaunds; French: Normands; Latin: Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France
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John De Courcy
Sir John de Courcy
John de Courcy
(also Courci; 1150–1219)[1] was an Anglo-Norman knight who arrived in Ireland in 1176. From then until his expulsion in 1204, he conquered a considerable territory, endowed religious establishments, built abbeys for both the Benedictines and the Cistercians and built strongholds at Dundrum Castle
Dundrum Castle
in County Down
County Down
and Carrickfergus Castle
Carrickfergus Castle
in County Antrim.[2]Contents1 Early career in Ireland 2 Later career in Ireland 3 Literary references3.1 Genealogy4 Family tree I 5 Family tree II 6 ReferencesEarly career in Ireland[edit] John de Courcy, of Stoke Courcy, in Somerset, came to Ireland around the year 1171 as part of the Norman invading forces, brought in as mercenaries working for Diarmaid Mac Murchadha, the ousted King of Leinster, to help him regain his position as king
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Columba
Saint
Saint
Columba
Columba
(Irish: Colm Cille, 'church dove';[a][1][2]; Scots: Columbkille;[3] 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland
Scotland
at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission. He founded the important abbey on Iona, which became a dominant religious and political institution in the region for centuries. He is the Patron Saint
Saint
of Derry. He was highly regarded by both the Gaels
Gaels
of Dál Riata and the Picts, and is remembered today as a Christian saint and one of the Twelve Apostles of Ireland.[4] Columba
Columba
studied under some of Ireland's most prominent church figures and founded several monasteries in the country
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Beltane
Beltane
Beltane
(/ˈbɛl.teɪn/)[3][4] is the anglicised name for the Gaelic May Day
May Day
festival. Most commonly it is held on 1 May, or about halfway between the spring equinox and the summer solstice. Historically, it was widely observed throughout Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man. In Irish the name for the festival day is Lá Bealtaine ([l̪ˠaː ˈbʲal̪ˠt̪ˠənʲə]), in Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Là Bealltainn ([l̪ˠa: ˈpjaul̪ˠt̪ˠɪɲ]) and in Manx Gaelic Laa Boaltinn/Boaldyn. It is one of the four Gaelic seasonal festivals—along with Samhain, Imbolc and Lughnasadh—and is similar to the Welsh Calan Mai. Beltane
Beltane
is mentioned in some of the earliest Irish literature, and it is associated with important events in Irish mythology. It marked the beginning of summer and was when cattle were driven out to the summer pastures
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Cairn
A cairn is a human-made pile (or stack) of stones. The word cairn comes from the Scottish Gaelic: càrn [ˈkʰaːrˠn̪ˠ] (plural càirn [ˈkʰaːrˠɲ]).[1] Cairns
Cairns
have been and are used for a broad variety of purposes, from prehistoric times to the present.A cairn to mark a mountain summit in Graubünden, SwitzerlandIn modern times, cairns are often erected as landmarks, a use they have had since ancient times. However, since prehistory, they have also been built and used as burial monuments; for defense and hunting; for ceremonial purposes, sometimes relating to astronomy; to locate buried items, such as caches of food or objects; and to mark trails, among other purposes. Cairns
Cairns
are used as trail markers in many parts of the world, in uplands, on moorland, on mountaintops, near waterways and on sea cliffs, as well as in barren deserts and tundra
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Irish Language
The Irish language
Irish language
(Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language,[5] is a Goidelic
Goidelic
language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland
Ireland
and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people, and as a second language by a larger group of non-native speakers. Irish has been the predominant language of the Irish people
Irish people
for most of their recorded history, and they have brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Manx respectively
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Ireland
Ireland
Ireland
(/ˈaɪərlənd/ ( listen); Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] ( listen); Ulster-Scots: Airlann [ˈɑːrlən]) is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain
Great Britain
to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland
Ireland
is the third-largest island in Europe. Politically, Ireland
Ireland
is divided between the Republic of Ireland (officially named Ireland), which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland
Ireland
was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe
Europe
after Great Britain
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Burn (landform)
A burn is a watercourse (in size from a large stream to a small river).Contents1 Etymology 2 Examples 3 References 4 External linksEtymology[edit] The term burn is used in Scotland
Scotland
and England
England
(especially North East England) and in parts of Ulster, Australia
Australia
and New Zealand. The cognate of burn in standard English is "bourn", "bourne", "borne", "born", which is retained in placenames like Bournemouth, King's Somborne, Holborn, Melbourne. A cognate in German is Born[1] (contemp. Brunnen), meaning "well", "spring" or "source", which is retained in placenames like Paderborn
Paderborn
in Germany
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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