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Ramesh Bikal
Rameshwor Sharma Chalise[1] better known as Ramesh Bikal
Ramesh Bikal
(Nepali: रमेश बिकल) (born 1932-2008, near Gokarna, Nepal
Nepal
in the Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Valley) is a Nepalese writer and painter who is known for his works portraying rural life and the lives of common people in Nepal. He received a B.Ed. in 1960, and worked in education. His early stories had socialist and anti-establishment themes. As a result, he was imprisoned three times between 1949 and 1960
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Nepal
Nepal
Nepal
(/nəˈpɔːl/ ( listen);[12] Nepali: नेपाल  Nepāl [neˈpal]), officially the Federal Democratic Republic
Republic
of Nepal
Nepal
(Nepali: सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl),[13] is a landlocked country in South Asia
South Asia
located in the Himalaya. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area.[2][14] It borders China
China
in the north and India
India
in the south, east, and west while Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip and Bhutan
Bhutan
is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim
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Jung Bahadur Rana
Shree Teen Maharaja
Maharaja
Sir
Sir
Jung Bahadur Kunwar Ranaji[3] (born as Bir Narsingh Kunwar (Nepali: वीर नरसिंह कुँवर), GCB, GCSI, 18 June 1817, Borlang, Gorkha – 25 February 1877, Patharghat, Rautahat; popularly known as Jung Bahadur Rana (Nepali: जङ्ग बहादुर राणा)) was a Khas Rajput
Khas Rajput
(Chhetri)[note 1] ruler of Nepal
Nepal
and founder of the Rana Dynasty
Dynasty
of Nepal. His real name was Bir Narsingh Kunwar but he became famous by the name Junga Bahadur, given to him by first Prime Minister and C-in-C Mathabar Singh Thapa, his maternal uncle. His mother Ganesh Kumari was the daughter of Kaji Nain Singh Thapa, brother of PM Bhimsen Thapa
Bhimsen Thapa
of then ruling Thapa dynasty.[5] Through the influence of his maternal side, he enjoyed privileges
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Kalu Pande
Kalu Pande
Kalu Pande
(Nepali: कालु पाँडे born as Banshidhar Pande) was born in 1713 A.D in Gorkha. He was the commander of the gorkhali forces during the Unification Campaign of Nepal. He died in the first Battle of Kirtipur
Kirtipur
in 1757 A.D. His real name was Banshidhar Pande. He was a son of Kaji Bhimraj Pande who was minister during reign of King Prithivipati Shah of Gorkha. He was descendent of Minister of Gorkha
Gorkha
and Dravya Shah's accomplice Ganesh Pande. He had three sons: Dewan Kajisaheb Bamsa Raj Pande, Sardar Ranasur Pande and Mulkaji Sahib Damodar Pande (1st PM of Nepal). [1] Battle of Kirtipur[edit] Kalu Pande
Kalu Pande
was made the Commander-in-Chief of the Gorkhali Army after Biraj Thapa Magar
Biraj Thapa Magar
and his first major Battle was the Battle of Kirtipur
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Kingdom Of Nepal
The Hindu Kingdom of Nepal
Nepal
(Nepali: नेपाल अधिराज्य), also known as the Kingdom of Gorkha (Nepali: गोर्खा अधिराज्य), was a Hindu kingdom formed in 1768[4] by the unification of Nepal. Founded by King Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkhali monarch of Rajput
Rajput
origin,[5] it existed for 240 years until the abolition of the Nepalese monarchy in 2008. During this period, Nepal
Nepal
was formally under the rule of the Shah dynasty, which exercised varying degrees of power during the kingdom's existence. After the invasion of Tibet
Tibet
and plundering of Digarcha by Nepali forces under Prince Regent Bahadur Shah in 1792, the Dalai Lama and Chinese Ambans reported to Chinese administration for military support
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Shah Dynasty
Shah
Shah
dynasty (Nepali: शाह वंश) was the ruling Thakuri dynasty of the Gorkha Kingdom
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Sino-Nepalese War
The Sino-Nepalese War
Sino-Nepalese War
(Chinese: 廓爾喀之役, Nepali: नेपाल-चीन युद्ध), also known as the Sino-Gorkha war, was an invasion of Tibet
Tibet
by Nepal
Nepal
from 1788-1792. The war was initially fought between Nepalese and Tibetan armies over a trade dispute related to a long-standing problem of low-quality coins manufactured by Nepal
Nepal
for Tibet. The Nepalese Army under Bahadur Shah plundered Tibet
Tibet
under Qing rule and Tibetans signed the Treaty of Kerung paying annual tribute to Nepal. However, Tibetans requested for Chinese intervention and Sino-Tibetan forces under Fuk'anggan
Fuk'anggan
raided Nepal
Nepal
up to Nuwakot only to face strong Nepalese counterattack
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Bhimsen Thapa
Bhimsen Thapa
Bhimsen Thapa
 listen (help·info) (Nepali: भीमसेन थापा; August 1775 – 5 August 1839) was the Mukhtiyar[note 1] (equivalent to prime minister) and de facto ruler of Nepal
Nepal
from 1806 to 1837. Bhimsen rose to power by initially serving as a bodyguard and personal secretary of King Rana Bahadur Shah. Bhimsen had accompanied Rana Bahadur Shah to Varanasi
Varanasi
after his abdication and subsequent exile in 1800. In Varanasi, Bhimsen helped Rana Bahadur engineer his return to power in 1804. In gratitude, Rana Bahadur made Bhimsen a Kaji (equivalent to a minister) of the newly formed government
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Anglo-Nepalese War
22,000 men, with sixty cannon (First campaign)[1][2] 17,000 (Second campaign)[3] Unknown number of Indian mercenaries during both campaigns. a little more than 11,000[4]Casualties and lossesUnknown, presumed to be extremely heavy UnknownThe Anglo-Nepalese War
Anglo-Nepalese War
(1814–16), also known as the Gurkha
Gurkha
War, was fought between the Kingdom of Gorkha
Kingdom of Gorkha
(present-day Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal) and the East India Company
East India Company
as a result of border disputes and ambitious expansionism of both the belligerent parties. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Sugauli
Treaty of Sugauli
in 1816, which ceded around a third of Nepal's territory to the British. The Company was the invading forces, while the Nepalese maintained a defensive position. The British attacked in two successive waves of invasion
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Balbhadra Kunwar
Balbhadra Kunwar
Balbhadra Kunwar
(30 January 1789 – 13 March 1823)[1] is a National Hero of Nepal.[2] He is famous for his service in the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814-1816).[3]Contents1 Early life and Rise to power 2 The Anglo- Nepal
Nepal
War 1814–1816 3 Later life 4 References 5 External linksEarly life and Rise to power[edit] Father Chandra Bir Kunwar home in Bhanwarkot, Dhulikhel. Subba of Garhwal 1808–1811, Subba of the Bhot Madhesh, and hill regions of Doti
Doti
1809, Sardar of Garhaun 1811–1812 and of Doti
Doti
1812–1814. He died at Garhwal, 1814, having had issue, three sons; Bhakti Thapa, Bal Bhadra Kunwor
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Treaty Of Sugauli
The Treaty of Sugauli
Sugauli
(also spelled Sugowlee, Sagauli and Segqulee), the treaty that established the boundary line of Nepal, was signed on 2 December 1815 and ratified by 4 March 1816 between the East India
India
Company and King of Nepal
Nepal
following the Anglo-Nepalese War
Anglo-Nepalese War
of 1814-16. The signatory for Nepal
Nepal
was Raj Guru Gajraj Mishra aided by Chandra Sekher Upadhayaya, the signatory for the Company was Lieutenant Colonel Paris Bradshaw. The treaty called for territorial concessions in which some of the territories controlled by Nepal
Nepal
would be given to British India, the establishment of a British representative in Kathmandu, and allowed Britain to recruit Gurkhas for military service
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Rana Dynasty
Rana dynasty
Rana dynasty
(Nepali: राणा वंश Rāņā bamsa) is a Khas Rajput (Chhetri)[note 1] dynasty and were autocratic leaders[3] that ruled the Kingdom of Nepal
Kingdom of Nepal
from 1846 A.D until 1951A.D, reducing the Shah monarch to a figurehead and making Prime Minister and other government positions hereditary.[4][5] This changed in 1951 with the promulgation of a new constitution, when power shifted back to the monarchy of King Tribhuvan.[6]Contents1 Background 2 Rana Prime Ministers2.1 Succession3 See also 4 References4.1 Footnotes 4.2 Notes5 External links and SourcesBackground[edit] The dynasty is descended from Bal Narsingh Kunwar
Bal Narsingh Kunwar
who was the son-in-law of Thapa Kaji Nain Singh Thapa
Nain Singh Thapa
of powerful Thapa dynasty.[2] The Kunwar family (now Rana dynasty) came to power being relatives of powerful Mukhtiyar Bhimsen Thapa
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Kot Massacre
The Kot massacre
Kot massacre
(Nepali: कोत पर्वkot parva) took place on 14 September 1846 when Jung Bahadur
Jung Bahadur
Rana and his brothers killed about 40 members of the Nepalese palace court including the Prime Minister and a relative of the King, Chautariya Fateh Jung Shah, at the palace armoury (the kot) of Kathmandu. This led to the loss of power by King Rajendra Bikram Shah and by Surendra Bikram Shah and the establishment of the Rana autocracy.Contents1 Background 2 Overview 3 Aftermath 4 See Also 5 Further reading 6 ReferencesBackground[edit] At the peak of instability in Nepalese politics, a coalition ministry was formed in September 1845, headed by Fateh Jang Chautaria, but the real power behind the throne was General Gagan Singh Bhandari, who controlled seven regiments in the army compared to the three under the prime minister
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Nepalese–Tibetan War
War
War
is a state of armed conflict between states or societies. It is generally characterized by extreme aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. An absence of war is usually called "peace". Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general.[1] Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties. While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature,[2] others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances.[3] The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is World War
War
II, from 1939 to 1945, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests[4] at up to 60 million
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Prithvi Narayan Shah
Prithivi Narayan Shah (1723[3]–1775; Nepali: पृथ्वीनारायण शाह) was the first King of Gorkha Kingdom. He is credited for starting the campaign for a re-unification of Nepal.[4] He was the ninth generation descendant of Dravya Shah (1559–1570), the founder of the ruling house of Prithbinarayan. Prithvi Narayan Shah
Prithvi Narayan Shah
succeeded his father, King Nara Bhupal Shah, to the throne of the Gorkha Kingdom
Gorkha Kingdom
in 1743, at the age of 20.Contents1 Personal life 2 Expansion of empire 3 Death and legacy 4 Gallery images 5 References 6 External linksPersonal life[edit] Prithivi narayan Shah was born as a prince in the Gorkha Kingdom. Chandra Pravawati (the first wife of King Nara Bhupal Shah) raised him, although his biological mother was Kaushalyavati Devi
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Tribhuvan Of Nepal
Tribhuwan Bir Bikram Shah(त्रिभुवन वीर विक्रम शाह), (June 23, 1903 – March 13, 1955) was King of Nepal
King of Nepal
from 11 December 1911 until his death (not considering his exile from 7 November 1950 to 18 February 1951). Born in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, he ascended to the throne at the age of eight, upon the death of his father, King Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah, and crowned on 20 February 1913 at the Nasal Chowk, Hanuman Dhoka Palace in Kathmandu, with his mother acting as regent
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