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Rainbow Trout
The RAINBOW TROUT ( Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss) is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. The STEELHEAD (sometimes called "steelhead trout") is an anadromous (sea-run) form of the COASTAL RAINBOW TROUT (O. m. irideus) or Columbia River redband trout (O. m. gairdneri) that usually returns to fresh water to spawn after living two to three years in the ocean. Freshwater forms that have been introduced into the Great Lakes and migrate into tributaries to spawn are also called steelhead. Adult freshwater stream rainbow trout average between 1 and 5 lb (0.5 and 2.3 kg), while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb (9 kg). Coloration varies widely based on subspecies , forms and habitat . Adult fish are distinguished by a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line , from gills to the tail, which is most vivid in breeding males. Wild-caught and hatchery -reared forms of this species have been transplanted and introduced for food or sport in at least 45 countries and every continent except Antarctica. Introductions to locations outside their native range in the United States (U.S.), Southern Europe , Australia, New Zealand and South America have damaged native fish species
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Steelhead (other)
STEELHEAD may refer to: * Rainbow trout
Rainbow trout
, fish also known as steelhead troutPLACES* Steelhead, California (other) * Steelhead, Humboldt County, California * Steelhead, Siskiyou County, California * Steelhead Beach Regional Park , in California * Steelhead Provincial Park , in British ColumbiaPEOPLE * Albert Steelhead (b 1858), native of Sweden, became a pioneer photographer in Chewelah, Washington OTHER USES * Nexus Q , an Android media streaming device codenamed STEELHEAD * Steelhead, a WAN appliance from Riverbed Technology This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title STEELHEAD. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Steelhead_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals . The remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs (clams , oysters , octopuses , squid , snails ); arthropods (millipedes , centipedes , insects , spiders , scorpions , crabs , lobsters , shrimp ); annelids (earthworms , leeches ), nematodes (filarial worms , hookworms ), flatworms (tapeworms , liver flukes ), cnidarians (jellyfish , sea anemones , corals ), ctenophores (comb jellies), and sponges
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Chordate
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata , which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata , comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa. The Vertebrata are sometimes considered as a subgroup of the clade Craniata , consisting of chordates with a skull ; the Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish of the superclass Osteichthyes . The world's largest and fastest animals, the blue whale and peregrine falcon respectively, are chordates, as are humans . Fossil chordates are known from at least as early as the Cambrian explosion
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Actinopterygii
ACTINOPTERYGII /ˌæktᵻnˌɒptəˈrɪdʒi.aɪ/ , or the RAY-FINNED FISHES, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes . The ray-finned fishes are so called because they possess lepidotrichia or "fin rays", their fins being webs of skin supported by bony or horny spines ("rays"), as opposed to the fleshy, lobed fins that characterize the class Sarcopterygii which also, however, possess lepidotrichia. These actinopterygian fin rays attach directly to the proximal or basal skeletal elements, the radials, which represent the link or connection between these fins and the internal skeleton (e.g., pelvic and pectoral girdles). Numerically, actinopterygians are the dominant class of vertebrates , comprising nearly 99% of the over 30,000 species of fish. They are ubiquitous throughout freshwater and marine environments from the deep sea to the highest mountain streams
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Salmonidae
SALMONIDAE is a family of ray-finned fish , the only living family currently placed in the order SALMONIFORMES. It includes salmon , trout , chars , freshwater whitefishes , and graylings , which collectively are known as the SALMONIDS. The Atlantic salmon and trout of the genus Salmo give the family and order their names. Salmonids have a relatively primitive appearance among the teleost fish, with the pelvic fins being placed far back, and an adipose fin towards the rear of the back. They are slender fish, with rounded scales and forked tails. Their mouths contain a single row of sharp teeth. Although the smallest species is just 13 cm (5.1 in) long as an adult, most are much larger, with the largest reaching 2 m (6.6 ft). All salmonids spawn in fresh water, but in many cases, the fish spend most of their lives at sea, returning to the rivers only to reproduce. This lifecycle is described as anadromous . They are predators , feeding on small crustaceans, aquatic insects, and smaller fish. CONTENTS * 1 Evolution * 2 Genetics * 3 Classification * 4 Hybrid crossbreeding * 5 References * 6 Further reading EVOLUTIONCurrent salmonids comprise three lineages , taxonomically treated as subfamilies: whitefish ( Coregoninae ), graylings ( Thymallinae ), and the char , trout , and salmons (Salmoninae)
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Oncorhynchus
§ Species ONCORHYNCHUS is a genus of fish in the family Salmonidae ; it contains the PACIFIC SALMON and PACIFIC TROUT . The name of the genus is derived from the Greek onkos ("hook") and rynchos ("nose"), in reference to the hooked jaws of males in the mating season (the "kype "). CONTENTS * 1 Range * 2 Evolution * 3 Decline of Oncorhynchus populations * 3.1 Influence of hatcheries * 3.2 Influence of overfishing * 4 Conservation * 4.1 Canadian efforts * 4.2 American efforts * 4.3 Russian efforts * 5 Introductions and aquaculture * 6 Species * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links RANGE Salmon and trout with native ranges in waters draining to the Pacific Ocean are members of the genus. Their range extends from Beringia southwards, roughly to Taiwan in the west and Mexico to the east. In North America , some subspecies of O. clarki are native in the Rocky Mountains and Great Basin , while others are native to the Rio Grande and western tributaries of the Mississippi River Basin which drain to the Gulf of Mexico , rather than to the Pacific. Several species of Oncorhynchus have been introduced into non-native waters around the globe establishing self-sustaining wild populations. The six Pacific salmons of Oncorhynchus are anadromous (migratory) and semelparous (die after spawning )
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Johann Julius Walbaum
JOHANN JULIUS WALBAUM (30 June 1724, Wolfenbüttel – 21 August 1799) was a physician, naturalist and fauna taxonomist . CONTENTS * 1 Works * 2 Legacy * 3 See also * 4 References WORKSAs an ichthyologist , he was the first to describe many previously unknown fish species from remote parts of the globe, such as the Great Barracuda
Barracuda
(_Sphyraena barracuda_), the Chum salmon
Chum salmon
(_Oncorhynchus keta_) from the Kamchatka River in Siberia
Siberia
, and the curimatá-pacú (_ Prochilodus marggravii_) from the São Francisco River in Brazil
Brazil
. He was also the first to observe gloves as a preventative against infection in medical surgery. In 1758, the gloves he observed were made from the cecum of the sheep, rather than rubber , which had not yet been discovered. LEGACYThe Naturhistorische Museum in Lübeck, opened in 1893, was based on Walbaum’s extensive scientific collection, which was lost during the Second World War
Second World War
. SEE ALSO * Taxa named by Johann Julius Walbaum
Johann Julius Walbaum
REFERENCES AUTHORITY CONTROL * WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 55077701 * LCCN : n85153829 * ISNI : 0000 0000 8384 1171 * GND : 124324924 _ This article about a German scientist is a stub
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce , which he called _Pinus abies_. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is _Picea abies_. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature ). A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used (resulting in a particular circumscription, position and rank) a name that is one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name (and _vice versa_). Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently
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Peter Simon Pallas
PETER SIMON PALLAS (22 September 1741 – 8 September 1811) was a German zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia (1767–1810). CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 Pallasite * 3 Commemorated * 4 Works * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links LIFE AND WORKPallas was born in Berlin, the son of Professor of Surgery Simon Pallas . He studied with private tutors and took an interest in natural history , later attending the University of Halle and the University of Göttingen . In 1760, he moved to the University of Leiden and passed his doctor's degree at the age of 19. Pallas travelled throughout the Netherlands and to London, improving his medical and surgical knowledge. He then settled at The Hague , and his new system of animal classification was praised by Georges Cuvier . Pallas wrote _Miscellanea Zoologica_ (1766), which included descriptions of several vertebrates new to science which he had discovered in the Dutch museum collections. A planned voyage to southern Africa and the East Indies fell through when his father recalled him to Berlin. There, he began work on his _Spicilegia Zoologica_ (1767–80)
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John Richardson (naturalist)
SIR JOHN RICHARDSON (5 November 1787 – 5 June 1865) was a Scottish naval surgeon , naturalist and arctic explorer . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Eponyms * 3 References * 4 External links LIFERichardson was born at Dumfries
Dumfries
. He studied medicine at Edinburgh University , and became a surgeon in the navy in 1807. He traveled with John Franklin
John Franklin
in search of the Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage
on the Coppermine Expedition of 1819–1822 . Richardson wrote the sections on geology , botany and ichthyology for the official account of the expedition. Franklin and Richardson returned to Canada in 1825 and went overland by fur trade routes to the mouth of the Mackenzie River
Mackenzie River
. Franklin was to go as far west as possible and Richardson was to go east to the mouth of the Coppermine River
Coppermine River
. These were the only known points on the central coast and had been reached in 1793 and 1771 respectively. He had with him two specially-built boats which were more ocean-worthy than the voyageur canoes used by Franklin on his previous expedition. They gave their names to the Dolphin and Union Strait near the end of his route. His journey was successful and he reached his furthest east the same day that Franklin reached his furthest west (16 August 1826)
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William Orville Ayres
WILLIAM ORVILLE AYRES (September 11, 1817 – April 30, 1887) was an American physician and ichthyologist . Born in Connecticut
Connecticut
, he studied to become a doctor at Yale University School of Medicine
Yale University School of Medicine
. LIFE AND CAREERAyers, the son of Jared and Dinah (Benedict) Ayres, was born in New Canaan , Conn, September 11, 1817. He graduated from Yale College in 1837. For fifteen years after graduation he was employed as a teacher as follows in Berlin , Conn. (1837–38), Miller\'s Place , L. I. (1838–41), East Hartford , Conn. (1842–44), Sag Harbor , L. I. (1844–47), and Boston
Boston
, Mass (1845–52). He began the study of medicine in Boston, and in 1854 received the degree of M.D. from Yale College. He then removed to San Francisco
San Francisco
, Cal., where he remained for nearly twenty years, engaged in practice. He also served as Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine in the Toland Medical College in that city. He removed to Chicago shortly before the great fire of 1871 , in which he suffered considerable pecuniary loss. About 1878 he returned to New Haven , and opened an office for the practice of his profession. From 1879 he also held an appointment as Lecturer on Diseases of the Nervous System in the Yale Medical School. He removed his residence, early in 1887, to Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, N
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George Suckley
GEORGE SUCKLEY (1830–1869) was an American physician and naturalist notable as an explorer of the Washington and Oregon
Oregon
territories in the 1850s, and describer of several new fish species. He was born in New York City
New York City
, and studied at the College of Physicians and Surgeons (today Columbia University ), receiving an M.D. in 1851, and subsequently serving as surgeon at New York Hospital . In 1853 he joined the Pacific Railroad Survey led by Isaac Stevens , and in 1856 resigned from the United States
United States
Army to pursue natural history full-time, publishing several works on the life of the Pacific Northwest . Upon the outbreak of the American Civil War , Suckley rejoined the Army, and worked as a surgeon throughout the war. He died in New York City a few years after the war. Two fish species, _ Squalus suckleyi _ Girard 1855, and _Catostomus sucklii _ Girard 1856, are named after George Suckley
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David Starr Jordan
DAVID STARR JORDAN (January 19, 1851 – September 19, 1931) was an American ichthyologist , educator , eugenicist , and peace activist . He was president of Indiana University
Indiana University
and the founding president of Stanford University
Stanford University
. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life and education * 1.2 Career * 1.3 Role in coverup of the murder of Jane Stanford * 1.4 Role in promoting eugenics * 1.5 Legacy * 2 Monuments and memorials * 3 Works * 3.1 Selected articles * 3.2 Miscellany * 4 Eponymy * 5 Notes * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYEARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONJordan was born in Gainesville, New York , and grew up on a farm in upstate New York . His parents made the unorthodox decision to educate him at a local girls' high school. He was inspired by