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Rainbow
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky. It takes the form of a multicoloured circular arc. Rainbows caused by sunlight always appear in the section of sky directly opposite the sun. Rainbows can be full circles. However, the observer normally sees only an arc formed by illuminated droplets above the ground,[1] and centered on a line from the sun to the observer's eye. In a primary rainbow, the arc shows red on the outer part and violet on the inner side. This rainbow is caused by light being refracted when entering a droplet of water, then reflected inside on the back of the droplet and refracted again when leaving it. In a double rainbow, a second arc is seen outside the primary arc, and has the order of its colors reversed, with red on the inner side of the arc
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Image Stitching
Image
Image
stitching or photo stitching is the process of combining multiple photographic images with overlapping fields of view to produce a segmented panorama or high-resolution image. Commonly performed through the use of computer software, most approaches to image stitching require nearly exact overlaps between images and identical exposures to produce seamless results,[1][2] although some stitching algorithms actually benefit from differently exposed images by doing HDR (High Dynamic Range) imaging in regions of overlap.[3][4] Some digital cameras can stitch their photos internally
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Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
Greece
was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era.[1] Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse
Late Bronze Age collapse
of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC
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135 Film
135 is photographic film in a film format used for still photography. It is a cartridge film with a film gauge of 35 mm, typically used for hand-held photography in 35 mm film cameras. Its engineering standard for the film is controlled by ISO 1007.[1] The term 135 (ISO 1007) was introduced by Kodak
Kodak
in 1934[2] as a designation for the cassette for 35 mm film, specifically for still photography. It quickly grew in popularity, surpassing 120 film
120 film
by the late 1960s to become the most popular photographic film size. Despite competition from formats such as 828, 126, 110, and APS, it remains so today. 135 camera film always comes perforated with Kodak
Kodak
Standard perforations. The size of the 135 film
135 film
frame has been adopted by many high-end digital single-lens reflex and digital mirrorless cameras, commonly referred to as "full frame"
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Wide-angle Lens
In photography and cinematography, a wide-angle lens refers to a lens whose focal length is substantially smaller than the focal length of a normal lens for a given film plane. This type of lens allows more of the scene to be included in the photograph, which is useful in architectural, interior and landscape photography where the photographer may not be able to move farther from the scene to photograph it. Another use is where the photographer wishes to emphasise the difference in size or distance between objects in the foreground and the background; nearby objects appear very large and objects at a moderate distance appear small and far away. This exaggeration of relative size can be used to make foreground objects more prominent and striking, while capturing expansive backgrounds.[1] A wide angle lens is also one that projects a substantially larger image circle than would be typical for a standard design lens of the same focal length
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Calculus
Calculus
Calculus
(from Latin
Latin
calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus)[1] is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations. It has two major branches, differential calculus (concerning rates of change and slopes of curves),[2] and integral calculus (concerning accumulation of quantities and the areas under and between curves).[3] These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus. Both branches make use of the fundamental notions of convergence of infinite sequences and infinite series to a well-defined limit. Generally, modern calculus is considered to have been developed in the 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
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Panorama
A panorama (formed from Greek πᾶν "all" + ὅραμα "sight") is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model. The word was originally coined in the 18th century[1] by the English (Irish descent) painter Robert Barker to describe his panoramic paintings of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and London. The motion-picture term panning is derived from panorama.[citation needed] A panoramic view is also purposed for multi-media, cross-scale applications to an outline overview (from a distance) along and across repositories
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Polarization (waves)
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.[1][2][3][4][5] In a transverse wave, the direction of the oscillation is transverse to the direction of motion of the wave, so the oscillations can have different directions perpendicular to the wave direction.[4] A simple example of a polarized transverse wave is vibrations traveling along a taut string (see image); for example, in a musical instrument like a guitar string. Depending on how the string is plucked, the vibrations can be in a vertical direction, horizontal direction, or at any angle perpendicular to the string
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Munsell Color System
In colorimetry, the Munsell color system
Munsell color system
is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue, value (lightness), and chroma (color purity). It was created by Professor Albert H. Munsell in the first decade of the 20th century and adopted by the USDA
USDA
as the official color system for soil research in the 1930s. Several earlier color order systems had placed colors into a three-dimensional color solid of one form or another, but Munsell was the first to separate hue, value, and chroma into perceptually uniform and independent dimensions, and he was the first to systematically illustrate the colors in three-dimensional space.[1] Munsell’s system, particularly the later renotations, is based on rigorous measurements of human subjects’ visual responses to color, putting it on a firm experimental scientific basis
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Sophism
A sophist (Greek: σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Many sophists specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric, though other sophists taught subjects such as music, athletics, and mathematics. In general, they claimed to teach arete ("excellence" or "virtue", applied to various subject areas), predominantly to young statesmen and nobility. The term originated from Greek σόφισμα, sophisma, from σοφίζω, sophizo "I am wise"; confer σοφιστής, sophistēs, meaning "wise-ist, one who does wisdom," and σοφός, sophós means "wise man". There are not many writings from and about the first sophists
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Visual Perception
Visual perception
Visual perception
is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment. The resulting perception is also known as visual perception, eyesight, sight, or vision (adjectival form: visual, optical, or ocular)
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Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
(/ˈæzɪmɒv/;[b][c] c. January 2, 1920[a] – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston
Boston
University. He was known for his works of science fiction and popular science. Asimov was a prolific writer who wrote or edited more than 500 books and an estimated 90,000 letters and postcards.[d] His books have been published in 9 of the 10 major categories of the Dewey Decimal Classification.[1] Asimov wrote hard science fiction. Along with Robert A. Heinlein
Robert A. Heinlein
and Arthur C. Clarke, Asimov was considered one of the "Big Three" science fiction writers during his lifetime.[2] Asimov's most famous work is the "Foundation" series;[3] his other major series are the "Galactic Empire" series and the Robot
Robot
series
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Linguistic Relativity
The principle of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers' world view or cognition. Popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, the principle is often defined to include two versions. The strong version says that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories, whereas the weak version says that linguistic categories and usage only influence thought and decisions. The term "Sapir–Whorf hypothesis" is considered a misnomer by linguists for several reasons: Edward Sapir
Edward Sapir
and Benjamin Lee Whorf never co-authored any works, and never stated their ideas in terms of a hypothesis
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Luminance
Luminance
Luminance
is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction. It describes the amount of light that passes through, is emitted or reflected from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle. The SI unit for luminance is candela per square metre (cd/m2). A non-SI term for the same unit is the nit. The CGS unit of luminance is the stilb, which is equal to one candela per square centimetre or 10 kcd/m2.Contents1 Explanation 2 Definition 3 Relation to Illuminance 4 Units 5 Health effects 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksExplanation[edit] Luminance
Luminance
is often used to characterize emission or reflection from flat, diffuse surfaces. The luminance indicates how much luminous power will be detected by an eye looking at the surface from a particular angle of view
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Wavelength
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats,[1][2] and thus the inverse of the spatial frequency. It is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves, as well as other spatial wave patterns.[3][4] Wavelength
Wavelength
is commonly designated by the Greek letter
Greek letter
lambda (λ)
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Total Internal Reflection
Total internal reflection
Total internal reflection
is the phenomenon which occurs when a propagated wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface. If the refractive index is lower on the other side of the boundary and the incident angle is greater than the critical angle, the wave cannot pass through and is entirely reflected. The critical angle is the angle of incidence above which the total internal reflection occurs. This is particularly common as an optical phenomenon, where light waves are involved, but it occurs with many types of waves, such as electromagnetic waves in general or sound waves. When a wave reaches a boundary between different materials with different refractive indices, the wave will in general be partially refracted at the boundary surface, and partially reflected. However, if the angle of incidence is greater (i.e
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