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Radio Station
A RADIO STATION is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves . Generally, it is a receiver or transmitter , an antenna , and some smaller additional equipment necessary to operate them. Radio stations play a vital role in communication technology as they are heavily relied on to transfer data and information across the world. More broadly, the definition of a radio station includes the aforementioned equipment and a building in which it is installed. Such a station may include several "radio stations" defined above (i.e. several sets of receivers or transmitters installed in one building but functioning independently, and several antennas installed on a field next to the building). This definition of a radio station is more often referred to as a transmitter site, transmitter station , transmission facility or transmitting station
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Communication
COMMUNICATION (from Latin _commūnicāre_, meaning "to share" ) is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules
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Radio Waves
RADIO WAVES are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Radio waves have frequencies as high as 300 GHz
GHz
to as low as 3 kHz , though some definitions describe waves above 1 or 3 GHz
GHz
as microwaves , or include waves of any lower frequency. At 300 GHz, the corresponding wavelength is 1 mm (0.039 in), and at 3 kHz is 100 km (62 mi). Like all other electromagnetic waves, they travel at the speed of light . Naturally occurring radio waves are generated by lightning , or by astronomical objects . Artificially generated radio waves are used for fixed and mobile radio communication , broadcasting , radar and other navigation systems, communications satellites , computer networks and innumerable other applications. Radio waves
Radio waves
are generated by radio transmitters and received by radio receivers
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Receiver (radio)
In radio communications , a RADIO RECEIVER (RADIO) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form. It is used with an antenna . The antenna intercepts radio waves (electromagnetic waves ) and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are applied to the receiver, and the receiver extracts the desired information. The receiver uses electronic filters to separate the desired radio frequency signal from all the other signals picked up by the antenna, an electronic amplifier to increase the power of the signal for further processing, and finally recovers the desired information through demodulation . The information produced by the receiver may be in the form of sound, images, or data
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Transmitter
In electronics and telecommunications a TRANSMITTER or RADIO TRANSMITTER is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna . The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current , which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current the antenna radiates radio waves. In addition to their use in broadcasting , transmitters are necessary component parts of many electronic devices that communicate by radio , such as cell phones , wireless computer networks , Bluetooth
Bluetooth
enabled devices, garage door openers , two-way radios in aircraft, ships, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation , such as radar and navigational transmitters
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Antenna (radio)
In radio an ANTENNA is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver . In transmission , a radio transmitter supplies an electric current to the antenna's terminals, and the antenna radiates the energy from the current as electromagnetic waves (radio waves). In reception , an antenna intercepts some of the power of an electromagnetic wave in order to produce an electric current at its terminals, that is applied to a receiver to be amplified . Antennas are essential components of radio equipment, and are used in radio broadcasting , broadcast television , two-way radio , communications receivers , radar , cell phones , satellite communications and other devices. An antenna is an array of conductors (elements ), electrically connected to the receiver or transmitter
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Radio Stations
RADIO BROADCASTING is a unidirectional wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience . Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format , either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both. Audio broadcasting also can be done via cable radio , local wire television networks , satellite radio , and internet radio via streaming media on the Internet . The signal types can be either analog audio or digital audio . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Types * 2.1 Shortwave * 2.2 AM * 2.3 FM * 2.4 Pirate radio * 2.5 Terrestrial digital radio * 2.6 Satellite * 3 Program formats * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORY See also: History of radio § Broadcasting , and History of broadcasting The earliest radio stations were simply radiotelegraphy systems and did not carry audio
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Transmitter Station
A TRANSMITTER STATION or transmission facility is an installation used for transmitting radio frequency signals for wireless communication , broadcasting , microwave link , mobile telephone or other purposes. CONTENTS * 1 Choice of location * 2 Buildings and antenna masts * 3 Grounding * 4 Operation * 5 Transmitting equipment * 6 References and notes CHOICE OF LOCATIONThe location may be chosen to fit the coverage area and for VHF-UHF-applications line of sight considerations. For lower frequencies a location with good ground conductivity is required. In case of microwave link chains, stations should be in observable ranges of each other. (see Earth bulge ) Computer programmes for the terrain profile and abacs are used in addition to on site observations. Avoidance of industrial noise is also taken into consideration. Another parameter may be the government regulations concerning public health requiring a minimum distance to human habitation
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Voice Of America Bethany Relay Station
THE VOICE OF AMERICA \'S BETHANY RELAY STATION was located in Butler County, Ohio 's Union Township about 25 miles (40 km) north of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
, adjacent to the transmitter site of WLW
WLW
. Starting in 1944 during World War II
World War II
it transmitted American radio programming abroad on shortwave frequencies, using 200,000-watt transmitters built by Crosley engineers under the direction of R.J. Rockwell. The site was developed to provide 'fallback' transmission facilities inland and away from the East Coast, where transmitters were located in Massachusetts, on Long Island in New York, and in New Jersey, all close to the ocean, subject to attack from German submarines or other invading forces. Programming originated from studios in New York until 1954, when VOA headquarters moved to Washington. The station operated until 1994
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Broadcasting
BROADCASTING is the distribution of audio or video content or other messages to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium , but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves ), in a one-to-many model. Broadcasting began with AM radio , which came into popular use around 1920 with the spread of vacuum tube radio transmitters and receivers . Before this, all forms of electronic communication (early radio , telephone , and telegraph ) were one-to-one, with the message intended for a single recipient. The term _broadcasting_, borrowed from the agricultural method of sowing seeds in a field by casting them broadly about, was coined by either KDKA manager Frank Conrad or RCA historian George Clark around 1920 to distinguish this new activity of "one-to-many" communication; a single radio station transmitting to multiple listeners
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International Telecommunications Union
The INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU; French: _Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)_), originally the INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH UNION (French: _Union Télégraphique Internationale)_), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies . The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum , promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits , works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards . The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks
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Radio Receiver
In radio communications , a RADIO RECEIVER (RADIO) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form. It is used with an antenna . The antenna intercepts radio waves (electromagnetic waves ) and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are applied to the receiver, and the receiver extracts the desired information. The receiver uses electronic filters to separate the desired radio frequency signal from all the other signals picked up by the antenna, an electronic amplifier to increase the power of the signal for further processing, and finally recovers the desired information through demodulation . The information produced by the receiver may be in the form of sound, images, or data. A radio receiver may be a separate piece of electronic equipment, or an electronic circuit within another device. Radio receivers are components of communications, broadcasting, remote control, and network systems
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Radiocommunication Service
RADIOCOMMUNICATION SERVICE is according to ARTICLE 1.19 of the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union´s (ITU)RR , defined as “a service…involving the transmission , emission and/or reception of radio waves for specific telecommunication purposes”. Radiocommunication
Radiocommunication
is sub-divided into space and terrestrial radiocommunication. Space radiocommunication is defined in RR Article 1 as “any radiocommunication involving the use of one or more space stations or the use of one or more reflecting satellites or other objects in space”. Terrestrial radiocommunication is defined as “any radiocommunication other than space radiocommunication or radio astronomy”. SUB-SETS OF SERVICES AND BRANCHESSome services are a sub-set of another service
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Radio Astronomy Service
RADIO ASTRONOMY SERVICE (also: radio astronomy radiocommunication service) is – according to Article 1.58 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) Radio Regulations (RR) – defined as «A radiocommunication service involving the use of radio astronomy .» Subject of this radiocommunication service is to receive radio waves transmitte by astronomical or celestical objects. See also Main articles: Radio station
Radio station
and Radiocommunication service
Radiocommunication service
FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONThe allocation of radio frequencies is provided according to Article 5 of the ITU Radio Regulations (edition 2012). In order to improve harmonisation in spectrum utilisation, the majority of service-allocations stipulated in this document were incorporated in national Tables of Frequency Allocations and Utilisations which is with-in the responsibility of the appropriate national administration
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Microphone
A MICROPHONE, colloquially nicknamed MIC or MIKE (/ˈmaɪk/ ), is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal . Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones , hearing aids , public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering , sound recording , two-way radios , megaphones , radio and television broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition , VoIP , and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors . Several different types of microphone are in use, which employ different methods to convert the air pressure variations of a sound wave to an electrical signal. The most common are the dynamic microphone , which uses a coil of wire suspended in a magnetic field; the condenser microphone , which uses the vibrating diaphragm as a capacitor plate, and the piezoelectric microphone , which uses a crystal of piezoelectric material
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Radio Wave
RADIO WAVES are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Radio waves have frequencies as high as 300 GHz to as low as 3 kHz , though some definitions describe waves above 1 or 3 GHz as microwaves , or include waves of any lower frequency. At 300 GHz, the corresponding wavelength is 1 mm (0.039 in), and at 3 kHz is 100 km (62 mi). Like all other electromagnetic waves, they travel at the speed of light . Naturally occurring radio waves are generated by lightning , or by astronomical objects . Artificially generated radio waves are used for fixed and mobile radio communication , broadcasting , radar and other navigation systems, communications satellites , computer networks and innumerable other applications. Radio waves
Radio waves
are generated by radio transmitters and received by radio receivers
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