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Radial Engine
The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders "radiate" outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel. It resembles a stylized star when viewed from the front, and is called a "star engine" (German Sternmotor, French moteur en étoile, Japanese hoshigata enjin, Italian Motore Stellare) in some languages
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Le Rhône
Le Rhône
Le Rhône
was the name given to a series of popular rotary aircraft engines produced in France by Société des Moteurs Le Rhône
Le Rhône
and the successor company of Gnome et Rhône. They powered a number of military aircraft types of the First World War. Le Rhône
Le Rhône
engines were also produced under license worldwide. Although not powerful (the largest wartime version produced 130 horsepower (97 kW)), they were dependable rotary engines.[1] The Le Rhône
Le Rhône
9 was a development of the Le Rhône
Le Rhône
7, a seven-cylinder design
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Piston
A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms. It is the moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod
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Salmson
Salmson
Salmson
is a French engineering company. Initially a pump manufacturer, it turned to automobile and aeroplane manufacturing in the 20th century, returning to pump manufacturing in the 1960s, and re-expanded to a number of products and services in the late 20th and into the 21st century.[1] It is headquartered in Chatou
Chatou
and has production facilities in Laval.[2] It has subsidiaries in Argentina, Italy, Lebanon, Portugal, South Africa and Vietnam.[2]Contents1 History 2 Aircraft
Aircraft
manufacture2.1 Aircraft 2.2 Aero-engines 2.3 Salmson
Salmson
post world War One engines3 Car manufacture 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] It was established by Émile Salmson
Salmson
(1858-1917) as Emile Salmson, Ing. as a workshop in Paris
Paris
(1890), making steam-powered compressors and centrifugal pumps for railway and military purposes
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Air-cooled
Air-cooled engines rely on the circulation of air directly over hot parts of the engine to cool them.A cylinder from an air-cooled aviation engine, a Continental C85. Notice the rows of fins on both the steel cylinder barrel and the aluminum cylinder head. The fins provide additional surface area for air to pass over the cylinder and absorb heat.Contents1 Introduction 2 Applications2.1 Road vehicles 2.2 Aviation 2.3 Diesel engines 2.4 Stationary or portable engines3 References 4 Bibliography4.1 Cited sources 4.2 Further readingIntroduction[edit] Most modern internal combustion engines are cooled by a closed circuit carrying liquid coolant through channels in the engine block and cylinder head, where the coolant absorbs heat, to a heat exchanger or radiator where the coolant releases heat into the air (or raw water, in the case of marine engines)
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English Channel
The English Channel
English Channel
(French: la Manche, "The Sleeve"; German: Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Breton: Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Cornish: Mor Bretannek, "British Sea"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England
England
from northern France, and links the southern part of the North Sea
North Sea
to the Atlantic Ocean
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Blériot XI
Blériot may refer to:Louis Blériot, a French aviation pioneer Blériot Aéronautique, an aircraft manufacturer founded by Louis Blériot Blériot-Whippet, a car Blériot (motocycle), a motocycle Bleriot (moonlet), a propeller moonlet in Saturn's A Ring 11248 Blériot, an asteroid Louis Blériot
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Louis Blériot
Louis Charles Joseph Blériot (1 July 1872 – 1 August 1936) was a French aviator, inventor and engineer. He developed the first practical headlamp for trucks and established a profitable business manufacturing them, using much of the money he made to finance his attempts to build a successful aircraft
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Triplane
A triplane is a fixed-wing aircraft equipped with three vertical stacked wing planes. Tailplanes and canard foreplanes are not normally included in this count, although they may be occasionally.[citation needed]Contents1 Design principles 2 History2.1 Pioneer years 2.2 The fighting triplanes 2.3 Zeppelin
Zeppelin
killers 2.4 Bombers, transports and patrol 2.5 The racing triplanes 2.6 Private aviation3 Tandem triplanes 4 See also 5 References5.1 Notes 5.2 BibliographyDesign principles[edit]Front view of a triplaneThe triplane arrangement may be compared with the biplane in a number of ways. A triplane arrangement has a narrower wing chord than a biplane of similar span and area. This gives each wing-plane a slender appearance with higher aspect ratio, making it more efficient and giving increased lift. This potentially offers a faster rate of climb and tighter turning radius, both of which are important in a fighter
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Jacob Ellehammer
Jacob Christian Hansen Ellehammer (June 14, 1871 – May 20, 1946) was a Danish watchmaker and inventor born in Bakkebølle, Denmark. He is remembered chiefly for his contributions to powered flight.1914 photo of Ellehammer's coaxial helicopter hoveringFollowing the end of his apprenticeship as a watchmaker he moved to Copenhagen where he worked as an electronics mechanic before establishing his own company in 1898. In the beginning he produced cigarette machines, beverage machines and other electronic machinery. In 1904 he produced his first motorcycle, the Elleham motorcycle. In 1903–1904 Jacob Ellehammer used his experience constructing motorcycles to build the world's first air-cooled radial engine, a three-cylinder engine which he used as the basis for a more powerful five-cylinder model in 1907. This was installed in his triplane and made a number of short free-flight hops as mentioned below. In 1905, he constructed a monoplane, and in the following year a "semi-biplane"
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Samuel Pierpont Langley
Samuel Pierpont Langley
Samuel Pierpont Langley
(/ˈlæŋli/; August 22, 1834 – February 27, 1906) was an American astronomer, physicist, inventor of the bolometer and aviation pioneer.Contents1 Life 2 Allegheny Observatory 3 Aviation
Aviation
work 4 Legacy 5 Bolometer 6 Commercial time service 7 Media 8 See also 9 References9.1 Notes 9.2 Bibliography10 External linksLife[edit] He was born in Roxbury, Boston
Roxbury, Boston
on 22 August 1834.[3] He attended Boston Latin School, graduated from English High School of Boston, was an assistant in the Harvard College Observatory, then moved to a job ostensibly as a professor of mathematics at the United States Naval Academy, but actually was sent there to restore the Academy's small observatory
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Stephen Balzer
Stephen Marius Balzer (c. 1864 – September 29, 1940) was a Hungarian-born American mechanic and inventor. He was the founder of the Balzer Motor Company and later donated one of his cars to the Smithsonian Institution, which was the first car in its collection. An engine he created for pioneering aviator Samuel Pierpont Langley was heavily modified and used in a craft that has been considered one of the earliest heavier-than-air aircraft. Born c. 1864, Balzer immigrated in the 1870s from the Kingdom of Hungary to the United States. He apprenticed as a watchmaker at Tiffany & Co.. When he started his own business in 1894, a machine shop, he already held several patents for mechanical devices, among them a device for making milling cutters and his rotary engine
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C. M. Manly
Charles Matthews Manly (1876–1927) was an American engineer. Manly helped Smithsonian Institution Secretary Samuel Pierpont Langley build The Great Aerodrome, which was intended to be a manned, powered, winged flying machine. Manly made major contributions to the development of the aircraft's revolutionary 52 hp gasoline-fueled radial engine, called the Manly-Balzer engine. Manly attempted to pilot the Aerodome in its only two tests, October and December 1903. The machine failed to fly both times, plunging into the Potomac River after its launch from a houseboat. Manly was rescued unhurt, although he was briefly trapped underwater after the second test. During World War I Manly was an advisor to the British War Office. He also earned about 40 patents in variable-speed hydraulic drives. In 1919 he was president of the Society of Automotive Engineers (now SAE International). Following his tenure he did additional engineering research on engines
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Manufacturing Tolerance
Engineering tolerance is the permissible limit or limits of variation in:a physical dimension; a measured value or physical property of a material, manufactured object, system, or service; other measured values (such as temperature, humidity, etc.); in engineering and safety, a physical distance or space (tolerance), as in a truck (lorry), train or boat under a bridge as well as a train in a tunnel (see structure gauge and loading gauge); in mechanical engineering the space between a bolt and a nut or a hole, etc..Dimensions, properties, or conditions may have some variation without significantly affecting functioning of systems, machines, structures, etc
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Tappet
A tappet is a projection that imparts a linear motion to some other component within a mechanism.Contents1 Beam engines 2 Internal combustion engines2.1 Adjustment 2.2 Hydraulic tappets 2.3 Sidevalve engines 2.4 Overhead cam
Overhead cam
engines 2.5 Overhead rockers3 Other uses 4 Notes 5 ReferencesBeam engines[edit]Adjustable tappet block on the vertical plug rod of a beam engine at Leawood Pump House. It acts on the curved horn beneath itThe term is first recorded as part of the valve gear of Thomas Newcomen's atmospheric beam engine, a precursor to the steam engine. The first Newcomen engines had manually worked valves, but within a few years, by 1715, this repetitive task had been automated. The beam of the engine had a vertical 'plug rod' hung from it, alongside the cylinder
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