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RS-232
In telecommunications, RS-232, Recommended Standard 232[1] is a standard introduced in 1960[2] for serial communication transmission of data. It formally defines the signals connecting between a DTE (data terminal equipment) such as a computer terminal, and a DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment or data communication equipment), such as a modem. The RS-232
RS-232
standard had been commonly used in computer serial ports. The standard defines the electrical characteristics and timing of signals, the meaning of signals, and the physical size and pinout of connectors
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Electromagnetic Interference
Electromagnetic interference
Electromagnetic interference
(EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.[1] The disturbance may degrade the performance of the circuit or even stop it from functioning. In the case of a data path, these effects can range from an increase in error rate to a total loss of the data.[2] Both man-made and natural sources generate changing electrical currents and voltages that can cause EMI: ignition systems, cellular network of mobile phones, lightning, solar flares, and auroras (Northern/Southern Lights)
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Bit Rate
In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.[1] The bit rate is quantified using the bits per second unit (symbol: "bit/s"), often in conjunction with an SI prefix
SI prefix
such as "kilo" (1 kbit/s = 1,000 bit/s), "mega" (1  Mbit/s = 1,000 kbit/s), "giga" (1 
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Data Signaling Rate
In telecommunication, data signaling rate (DSR), also known as gross bit rate, is the aggregate rate at which data pass a point in the transmission path of a data transmission system.The DSR is usually expressed in bits per second. The data signaling rate is given by ∑ i = 1 m log 2 ⁡ n i T i displaystyle sum _ i=1 ^ m frac log _ 2 n_ i T_ i where m is the number of parallel channels, ni is the number of significant conditions of the modulation in the i-th channel, and Ti is the unit interval, expressed in seconds, for the i-th channel. For serial transmission in a single channel, the DSR reduces to (1/T)log2n; with a two-condition modulation, i. e
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Short-circuit
A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance. This results in an excessive amount of current flowing into the circuit. The electrical opposite of a short circuit is an "open circuit", which is an infinite resistance between two nodes. It is common to misuse "short circuit" to describe any electrical malfunction, regardless of the actual problem.Contents1 Definition 2 Examples 3 Damage 4 Related concepts 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDefinition[edit] A short circuit is an abnormal connection between two nodes of an electric circuit intended to be at different voltages. This results in an electric current limited only by the Thévenin equivalent resistance of the rest of the network which can cause circuit damage, overheating, fire or explosion
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Capacitance
Capacitance
Capacitance
is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential. There are two closely related notions of capacitance: self capacitance and mutual capacitance. Any object that can be electrically charged exhibits self capacitance. A material with a large self capacitance holds more electric charge at a given voltage than one with low capacitance. The notion of mutual capacitance is particularly important for understanding the operations of the capacitor, one of the three elementary linear electronic components (along with resistors and inductors). The capacitance is a function only of the geometry of the design (e.g. area of the plates and the distance between them) and the permittivity of the dielectric material between the plates of the capacitor
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Character Encoding
In computing character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.[1] Depending on the abstraction level and context, corresponding code points and the resulting code space may be regarded as bit patterns, octets, natural numbers, electrical pulses, etc. A character encoding is used in computation, data storage, and transmission of textual data. "Character set", "character map", "codeset" and "code page" are related, but not identical, terms. Early character codes associated with the optical or electrical telegraph could only represent a subset of the characters used in written languages, sometimes restricted to upper case letters, numerals and some punctuation only. The low cost of digital representation of data in modern computer systems allows more elaborate character codes (such as Unicode) which represent most of the characters used in many written languages
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ASCII
ASCII
ASCII
(/ˈæski/ ( listen) ASS-kee),[1]:6 abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication
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EBCDIC
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code[1] (EBCDIC[1]; /ˈɛbsɪdɪk/) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="500";>
IBM
midrange computer operating systems
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Logic Level
In digital circuits, a logic level is one of a finite number of states that a digital signal can inhabit. Logic levels are usually represented by the voltage difference between the signal and ground, although other standards exist. The range of voltage levels that represents each state depends on the logic family being used.Contents1 2-level logic1.1 Active state 1.2 Logic voltage levels2 3-level logic 3 4-level logic 4 9-level logic 5 See also 6 References 7 External links2-level logic[edit] In binary logic the two levels are logical high and logical low, which generally correspond to binary numbers 1 and 0 respectively. Signals with one of these two levels can be used in boolean algebra for digital circuit design or analysis. Active state[edit] The use of either the higher or the lower voltage level to represent either logic state is arbitrary. The two options are active high and active low
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POS Terminal
The point of sale (POS) or point of purchase (POP) is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed. At the point of sale, the merchant calculates the amount owed by the customer, indicates that amount, may prepare an invoice for the customer (which may be a cash register printout), and indicates the options for the customer to make payment. It is also the point at which a customer makes a payment to the merchant in exchange for goods or after provision of a service. After receiving payment, the merchant may issue a receipt for the transaction, which is usually printed but is increasingly being dispensed with or sent electronically.[1][2][3] To calculate the amount owed by a customer, the merchant may use various devices such as weighing scales, barcode scanners, and cash registers
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Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
/ˈiːθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).[1] It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3,[2] and has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet
Ethernet
has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET. The original 10BASE5
10BASE5
Ethernet
Ethernet
uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, while the newer Ethernet
Ethernet
variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches
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Telecommunications Industry Association
The Telecommunications Industry Association
Telecommunications Industry Association
(TIA) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to develop voluntary, consensus-based industry standards for a wide variety of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) products, and currently represents nearly 400 companies
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CCITT
The ITU
ITU
Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Standardization
Standardization
Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union (ITU); it coordinates standards for telecommunications. The standardization efforts of ITU
ITU
commenced in 1865 with the formation of the International Telegraph Union (ITU). ITU
ITU
became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1947
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ITU-T
The ITU
ITU
Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Standardization
Standardization
Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union (ITU); it coordinates standards for telecommunications. The standardization efforts of ITU
ITU
commenced in 1865 with the formation of the International Telegraph Union (ITU). ITU
ITU
became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1947
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Handshaking
In telecommunications, a handshake is an automated process of negotiation between two communicating participants (example "Alice and Bob") through the exchange of information that establishes the protocols of a communication link at the start of the communication, before full communication begins.[1]The handshaking process usually takes place in order to establish rules for communication when a computer attempts to communicate with another device. Signals are usually exchanged between two devices to establish a communication link
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