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RJD Flag
A flag is a piece of fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colors. It is used as a symbol, a signaling device, or for decoration. The term flag is also used to refer to the graphic design employed, and flags have evolved into a general tool for rudimentary signalling and identification, especially in environments where communication is challenging (such as the maritime environment, where semaphore is used). The study of flags is known as "vexillology" from the Latin
Latin
vexillum, meaning "flag" or "banner". National flags are patriotic symbols with widely varied interpretations that often include strong military associations because of their original and ongoing use for that purpose. Flags are also used in messaging, advertising, or for decorative purposes. Some military units are called "flags" after their use of flags
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National Flag
A national flag is a flag that represents and symbolizes a country. The national flag is flown by the government of a country, but can usually also be flown by citizens of the country. A national flag is designed with specific meanings for its colors and symbols. The colors of the national flag may be worn by the people of a nation to show their patriotism, or related paraphernalia that show the symbols or colors of the flag may be used for those purposes. The design of a national flag may be altered after the occurrence of important historical events. The burning or destruction of a national flag is a greatly symbolic act.Contents1 History 2 Process of adoption 3 Usage3.1 On land 3.2 At sea 3.3 Protocol3.3.1 Hanging a flag vertically4 Design4.1 Colours 4.2 Similarities5 See also5.1 Lists of flags 5.2 Other6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] See also: Timeline of national flags Historically, flags originate as military standards, used as field signs
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Late Middle Ages
The Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
or Late Medieval
Medieval
Period was the period of European history
European history
lasting from 1250-1500 AD. The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
and preceded the onset of the early modern era (and, in much of Europe, the Renaissance).[1] Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe
Europe
came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, including the Great Famine
Famine
of 1315–1317 and the Black Death, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities.[2] Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare
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Sassanid
Temporarily controlled during the Byzantine– Sasanian
Sasanian
War of 602–628:  Abkhazia[12]  Russia (  Dagestan
Dagestan
and  Chechnya)  Turkey  Lebanon  Israel   Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
( West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza strip)[13]  Jordan  EgyptPart of a series on theHistory of IranMythological historyPishdadian dynasty Kayanian dynastyAncient periodBCPrehistory of Iran Ancient Times–4000Kura–Araxes culture 3400–2000Proto-Elamite 3200–2700Jiroft culture c. 3100 – c. 2200Elam 2700–539 Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire 2400–2150Kassites c. 1500 – c
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Derafsh Kaviani
Derafsh Kaviani
Derafsh Kaviani
(Persian: درفش کاویانی‎), or Derafsh Kavani (درفش کاوانی), was the legendary royal standard (vexilloid) of Iran
Iran
used since ancient times until fall of the Sasanian
Sasanian
Empire. Following the defeat of the Sassanids at the Arab conquest of Persia, the Sassanid standard was recovered by one Zerar bin Kattab,[1] who received 30,000 dinars for it
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Roman Legion
A Roman legion
Roman legion
(from Latin
Latin
legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was the largest unit of the Roman army, evolving from 3,000 men in the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
to over 5,200 men in the Roman Empire, consisting of centuries as the basic units. Until the middle of the first century, ten cohorts (about 5,000 men) made up a Roman Legion
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Aquila (Roman)
An aquila, or eagle, was a prominent symbol used in ancient Rome, especially as the standard of a Roman legion. A legionary known as an aquilifer, or eagle-bearer, carried this standard. Each legion carried one eagle. The eagle was extremely important to the Roman military, beyond merely being a symbol of a legion. A lost standard was considered an extremely grave occurrence, and the Roman military often went to great lengths to both protect a standard and to recover it if lost; for example, see the aftermath of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, where the Romans spent decades attempting to recover the lost standards of three legions. No legionary eagles are known to have survived
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Augustus Caesar
Augustus
Augustus
(Latin: Imperator
Imperator
Caesar Divi filius Augustus;[nb 1] 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who served as the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome
Rome
from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.[nb 2] His status as the founder of the Roman Principate
Principate
has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history.[1][2] He was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir
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Legio X Fretensis
Legio X Fretensis
Legio X Fretensis
("Tenth legion of the Strait") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was founded by the young Gaius Octavius (later to become Augustus
Augustus
Caesar) in 41/40 BC to fight during the period of civil war that started the dissolution of the Roman Republic. X Fretensis is then recorded to have existed at least until the 410s. X Fretensis symbols were the bull — the holy animal of the goddess Venus (mythical ancestor of the gens Julia) — a ship (probably a reference to the Battles of Naulochus and/or Actium), the god Neptune, and a boar
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Draconarius
The draconarius was a type of signifer who bore a cavalry standard known as a draco in the Roman army.Part of a series on theMilitary of ancient Rome 753 BC – AD 476Structural historyArmyUnit types and ranks LegionsAuxilia GeneralsNavyFleets AdmiralsCampaign historyWars and battlesDecorations and punishmentsTechnological historyMilitary engineeringCastra Siege enginesTriumphal arches RoadsPolitical history Strategy and tacticsInfantry tacticsFrontiers and fortificationsLimes Limes
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Sarmatians
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe
Steppe
cultures Bug–Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper–Donets Samara Khvalynsk Yamnaya Mikhaylovka culture Novotitorovka culture CaucasusMaykop
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Dragon Kite
Kites
Kites
are tethered flying objects which fly by using aerodynamic lift, requiring wind, (or towing), for generation of airflow over the lifting surfaces. Various types of kites exist,[1] depending on features such as material, shape, use, or operating skills required. Kites
Kites
may fly in air, water, or other fluids such as gas and other liquid gaining lift through deflection of the supporting medium
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High Middle Ages
Central Europe Guelf, Hohenstaufen, and Ascanian
Ascanian
domains in Germany about 1176         Duchy of Saxony          Margravate of Brandenburg          Duchy of Franconia         Duchy of Swabia          Duchy of BavariaThe High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
or High Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from AD 1000 to 1250
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City State
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome, Athens, Carthage,[1] and the Italian city-states
Italian city-states
during the Renaissance. As of 2019[update], only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies currently to Monaco, Singapore, and Vatican City
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Iran
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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Medieval Commune
Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages
Middle Ages
had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city. These took many forms and varied widely in organization and makeup. Communes are first recorded in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, thereafter becoming a widespread phenomenon. They had greater development in central-northern Italy, where they became city-states based on partial democracy. At the same time in Germany
Germany
they became free cities, independent from local nobility.Contents1 Etymology 2 Origins 3 Social order 4 Rural communes 5 Evolution in Italy
Italy
and decline in Europe 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 Sources 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The English and French word "commune" (Italian: comune) appears in Latin records in various forms
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