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RCA Connector
An RCA
RCA
connector, sometimes called a phono connector or (in other languages) Cinch connector, is a type of electrical connector commonly used to carry audio and video signals. The name RCA
RCA
derives from the Radio Corporation of America, which introduced the design by the early 1940s for internal connection of the pickup to the chassis in home radio-phonograph consoles. It was originally a low-cost, simple design, intended only for mating and disconnection when servicing the console. Refinement came with later designs, although they remained compatible. RCA
RCA
connectors began to replace the older quarter-inch phone connectors for many other applications in the consumer audio world when component high-fidelity systems started becoming popular in the 1950s
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Surround Sound
Surround sound
Surround sound
is a technique for enriching the sound reproduction quality of an audio source with additional audio channels from speakers that surround the listener (surround channels). Its first application was in movie theaters. Prior to surround sound, standard theater sound systems had three "screen channels" of sound, emitted by loudspeakers located only in front of the audience: at the left, center, and right. Surround sound
Surround sound
adds one or more channels from loudspeakers behind the listener, thus is able to create the sensation of sound coming from any horizontal direction 360° about the listener. There are various surround sound–based formats and techniques, varying in reproduction and recording methods along with the number and positioning of additional channels
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PAL
Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i). Other common colour encoding systems are NTSC
NTSC
and SECAM. All the countries using PAL
PAL
are currently in process of conversion or have already converted standards to DVB, ISDB
ISDB
or DTMB. This page primarily discusses the PAL
PAL
colour encoding system. The articles on broadcast television systems and analogue television further describe frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation.Contents1 History 2 Colour encoding2.1 PAL
PAL
vs. NTSC 2.2 PAL
PAL
vs
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Receiver (radio)
In radio communications, a receiver (radio receiver or simply radio) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form. It is used with an antenna. The antenna intercepts radio waves (electromagnetic waves) and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are applied to the receiver, and the receiver extracts the desired information
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Digital Signal
A digital signal is a signal that is being used to represent data as a sequence of discrete values; at any given time it can only take on one of a finite number of values.[1][2][3] This contrasts with an analog signal, which represents continuous values; at any given time it represents a real number within a continuous range of values. Simple digital signals represent information in discrete bands of analog levels. All levels within a band of values represent the same information state. In most digital circuits, the signal can have two possible values; this is called a binary signal or logic signal.[4] They are represented by two voltage bands: one near a reference value (typically termed as ground or zero volts), and the other a value near the supply voltage. These correspond to the two values "zero" and "one" (or "false" and "true") of the Boolean domain, so at any given time a binary signal represents one binary digit (bit)
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Stereophonic Sound
Stereophonic sound
Stereophonic sound
or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is usually achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers (or stereo headphones) in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing.[1] Thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic" and "surround-sound" systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is often contrasted with monophonic, or "mono" sound, where audio is heard as coming from one position, often ahead in the sound field (analogous to a visual field). In the 2000s, stereo sound is common in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio, TV, recorded music, and cinema.How stereophonic & duophonic sound systems work
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RF Modulator
An RF modulator
RF modulator
(or radio frequency modulator) is an electronic device whose input is a baseband signal which is used to modulate a radio frequency source.[1] RF modulators are used to convert signals from devices such as media players, VCRs and game consoles to a format that can be handled by a device designed to receive a modulated RF input, such as a radio or television receiver.Contents1 History 2 Design 3 Uses3.1 Integrated modulators 3.2 Broadcasting modulators4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Prior to the introduction of specialised video connector standards such as SCART, TVs were designed to only accept signals through the aerial connector: signals originate at a TV station, are transmitted over the air, and are then received by an antenna and demodulated within the TV
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Broadcast Television Systems
Broadcast television systems
Broadcast television systems
are encoding or formatting standards for the transmission and reception of terrestrial television signals. There were three main analog television systems in use around the world until the late 2010s (expected): NTSC, PAL, and SECAM
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NTSC
NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee,[1] is the analog television system that is used in North America, and until digital conversion was used in most of the Americas
Americas
(except Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and French Guiana); Myanmar; South Korea; Taiwan; Philippines, Japan;[2] and some Pacific island nations and territories (see map). The first NTSC
NTSC
standard was developed in 1941 and had no provision for color. In 1953 a second NTSC
NTSC
standard was adopted, which allowed for color television broadcasting which was compatible with the existing stock of black-and-white receivers
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SECAM
SECAM, also written SÉCAM (French pronunciation: ​[sekam], Séquentiel couleur à mémoire,[1] French for "Sequential colour with memory"), is an analogue color television system first used in France. It was one of three major colour television standards, the others being the European PAL
PAL
and North American NTSC. Development of SECAM
SECAM
began in 1956 by a team led by Henri de France working at Compagnie Française de Télévision (later bought by Thomson, now Technicolor). The first SECAM
SECAM
broadcast was made in France
France
in 1967, making it the first such standard to go live in Europe. The system was also selected as the standard for colour in the Soviet Union, who began broadcasts shortly after the French. The standard spread from these two countries to many client states and former colonies. SECAM
SECAM
remained a major standard into the 2000s
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Balanced Audio
Balanced audio
Balanced audio
is a method of interconnecting audio equipment using balanced lines. This type of connection is very important in sound recording and production because it allows the use of long cables while reducing susceptibility to external noise caused by electromagnetic interference. Balanced connections typically use shielded twisted-pair cable and three-conductor connectors. The connectors are usually XLR or TRS phone connectors. When used in this manner, each cable carries one channel, therefore stereo audio (for example) would require two of them.[1]Contents1 Applications 2 Interference reduction 3 Differential signaling 4 Internally balanced audio design 5 Connectors 6 Converters 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksApplications[edit] Many microphones operate at low voltage levels and some with high output impedance (hi-Z), which makes long microphone cables especially susceptible to electromagnetic interference
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Videocassette Recorder
A videocassette recorder, VCR, or video recorder is an electromechanical device that records analog audio and analog video from broadcast television or other source on a removable, magnetic tape videocassette, and can play back the recording. Use of a VCR to record a television program to play back at a more convenient time is commonly referred to as timeshifting. VCRs can also play back prerecorded tapes. In the 1980s and 1990s, prerecorded videotapes were widely available for purchase and rental, and blank tapes were sold to make recordings. Most domestic VCRs are equipped with a television broadcast receiver (tuner) for TV reception, and a programmable clock (timer) for unattended recording of a television channel from a start time to an end time specified by the user. These features began as simple mechanical counter-based single-event timers, but were later replaced by more flexible multiple-event digital clock timers
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DVD
DVD
DVD
(an abbreviation of "digital video disc"[5] or "digital versatile disc"[6][7]) is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips
Philips
and Sony
Sony
in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is widely used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD
DVD
players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs while having the same dimensions. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD. Such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be read and not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD
DVD
discs ( DVD-R
DVD-R
and DVD+R) can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and then function as a DVD-ROM
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Adapter
An (electrical) adapter or adaptor[1] is a device that converts attributes of one electrical device or system to those of an otherwise incompatible device or system. Some modify power or signal attributes, while others merely adapt the physical form of one electrical connector to another.Contents1 Travel adapter 2 AC adapter 3 Computer port adapters 4 See also 5 ReferencesTravel adapter[edit] Countries with ties to Europe use 230 volt, 50 cycle power plugs and sockets. While many countries use the same 230 volt systems, there are a variety of different connectors used. Difficulty arises when moving an electrical device with a unique plug to another country with a different socket. An electric power adapter sometimes called a travel plug, may enable a plug from one region to use a foreign socket in another region
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Backward Compatibility
Backward compatibility
Backward compatibility
is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing. Backward compatibility
Backward compatibility
is sometimes also called downward compatibility.[1] Modifying a system in a way that does not allow backward compatibility is sometimes called "breaking" backward compatibility.[2] A complementary concept is forward compatibility
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