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R.M.S. Titanic
RMS TITANIC (/taɪˈtænɪk/ ) was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in the early morning hours of 15 April 1912, after it collided with an iceberg during its maiden voyage from Southampton
Southampton
to New York City
New York City
. There were an estimated 2,224 passengers and crew aboard the ship, and more than 1,500 died, making it one of the deadliest commercial peacetime maritime disasters in modern history. The RMS Titanic
Titanic
was the largest ship afloat at the time it entered service and was the second of three Olympic-class ocean liners operated by the White Star Line
White Star Line
. The Titanic
Titanic
was built by the Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff
shipyard in Belfast
Belfast
. Thomas Andrews , her architect, died in the disaster
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Hull (watercraft)
The HULL is the watertight body of a ship or boat. Above the hull is the superstructure and/or deckhouse , where present. The line where the hull meets the water surface is called the waterline . The structure of the hull varies depending on the vessel type. In a typical modern steel ship, the structure consists of watertight and non-tight decks, major transverse and watertight (and also sometimes non-tight or longitudinal) members called bulkheads , intermediate members such as girders , stringers and webs , and minor members called ordinary transverse frames, frames, or longitudinals, depending on the structural arrangement . The uppermost continuous deck may be called the "upper deck", "weather deck", "spar deck", "main deck ", or simply "deck". The particular name given depends on the context—the type of ship or boat, the arrangement, or even where it sails. Not all hulls are decked (for instance a dinghy )
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Newfoundland (Island)
NEWFOUNDLAND (/njuːfənˈlænd/ ( listen ) new-fən-LAND ; French : Terre-Neuve ) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
. It has 29 percent of the province's land area. The island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island
by the Cabot Strait
Cabot Strait
. It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
, the world's largest estuary . Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the French overseas community of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon

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Port And Starboard
PORT and STARBOARD are nautical and aeronautical terms for left and right, respectively. Port is the left-hand side of a vessel or aircraft, facing forward. Starboard is the right-hand side, facing forward. Since port and starboard never change, they are unambiguous references that are not relative to the observer. The term starboard derives from the Old English steorbord, meaning the side on which the ship is steered. Before ships had rudders on their centrelines, they were steered with a steering oar at the stern of the ship and, because more people are right-handed , on the right-hand side of it. The term is cognate with the Old Norse stýri (rudder) and borð (side of a ship). Since the steering oar was on the right side of the boat, it would tie up at the wharf on the other side. Hence the left side was called port. Formerly, larboard was used instead of port. This is from Middle-English ladebord and the term lade is related to the modern load
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Compartment (ship)
A COMPARTMENT is a portion of the space within a ship defined vertically between decks and horizontally between bulkheads . It is analogous to a room within a building, and may provide WATERTIGHT SUBDIVISION of the ship's hull important in retaining buoyancy if the hull is damaged. Subdivision of a ship's hull into watertight compartments is called COMPARTMENTATION. Transverse bulkheads appear horizontally in this photo of a battleship under construction. These compartments are formed by non-structural bulkheads. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Watertight subdivision * 3 Doors * 4 Nomenclature * 5 References * 6 Notes HISTORYBulkhead watertight compartments were invented by the Chinese which strengthened the junks and slowed flooding in case of holing during the Han and Song dynasties . The wide application of Chinese watertight compartments soon spread to the Europeans through the Indian and Arab merchants
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Women And Children First
"WOMEN AND CHILDREN FIRST" (or to a lesser extent, the BIRKENHEAD DRILL ) is a code of conduct dating from 1852, whereby the lives of women and children were to be saved first in a life-threatening situation, typically abandoning ship, when survival resources such as lifeboats were limited. While the phrase first appeared in the 1860 novel Harrington: A Story of True Love, by William Douglas O'Connor, the first documented application of "women and children first" occurred during the 1852 evacuation of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
troopship HMS Birkenhead . It is, however, most famously associated with the sinking of RMS Titanic
RMS Titanic
in 1912. As a code of conduct, "women and children first" has no basis in maritime law
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Cobh
COBH (/ˈkoʊv/ KOHV , Irish : an Cóbh), known from 1849 until 1920 as QUEENSTOWN, is a tourist seaport town on the south coast of County Cork
County Cork
, Ireland . Cobh
Cobh
is on the south side of Great Island
Great Island
in Cork Harbour
Cork Harbour
and is home to Ireland's only dedicated cruise terminal. Tourism in the area draws on the maritime and emigration legacy of the town - including its association with the RMS Titanic
RMS Titanic
. Facing the town are Spike Island and Haulbowline Island
Haulbowline Island
, and on a high point in the town stands St Colman\'s Cathedral , one of the tallest buildings in Ireland and seat of the diocese of Cloyne
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Cherbourg
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 _Population without double counting _: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. CHERBOURG-OCTEVILLE (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a city and former commune situated at the northern end of the Cotentin peninsula in the northwestern French department of Manche . It is a subprefecture of its department, and was officially formed when the commune of Cherbourg absorbed Octeville on 28 February 2000. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune of Cherbourg-en-Cotentin . The city is a Maritime prefecture and sub-prefecture of la Manche
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The Captain Goes Down With The Ship
"THE CAPTAIN GOES DOWN WITH THE SHIP" is an idiom and maritime tradition that a sea captain holds ultimate responsibility for both his ship and everyone embarked on it, and that in an emergency, he will either save them or die trying. Although often connected to the sinking of the RMS Titanic
RMS Titanic
in 1912 and its captain, Edward J. Smith , the phrase precedes Titanic by at least 11 years. In most instances the captain of the ship forgoes his own rapid departure of a ship in distress, and concentrates instead on saving other people. It often results in either the death or belated rescue of the captain as the last person on board
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Scandinavia
SCANDINAVIA /ˌskændɪˈneɪviə/ is a historical and cultural region in Northern Europe characterized by a common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic languages . In English usage, Scandinavia
Scandinavia
sometimes refers to the area known as the Scandinavian Peninsula . The term Scandinavia
Scandinavia
always includes the three kingdoms of Denmark
Denmark
, Norway
Norway
, and Sweden
Sweden
. The remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard
Svalbard
and Jan Mayen are usually not seen as a part of Scandinavia, nor is Greenland , an overseas territory of Denmark
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Wireless Telegraphy
WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY is a method of conveying text ("graphic") information over a distance ("tele") using established telegraphic techniques but without the use of interconnecting wires. It is now used as a historical term for the first radio communication systems, which transmitted telegraph signals by radio waves . When the term originated in the late 19th century it also applied to other types of experimental wireless telegraph communication technologies, such as photoelectric and induction telegraphy. During the 20th century wireless telegraphy came to mean Morse code transmitted by radio waves, discovered by Heinrich Hertz in 1886 (and thus initially referred to as " Hertzian waves "). The first radio transmitters , primitive spark gap transmitters used until World War 1, could not transmit voice (audio signals )
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Lifeboat (shipboard)
A LIFEBOAT is a small, rigid or inflatable boat carried for emergency evacuation in the event of a disaster aboard a ship. Lifeboat drills are required by law on larger commercial ships. Rafts (liferafts ) are also used. In the military, a lifeboat may double as a whaleboat , dinghy , or gig . The ship\'s tenders of cruise ships often double as lifeboats. Recreational sailors usually carry inflatable life rafts, though a few prefer small proactive lifeboats that are harder to sink and can be sailed to safety. Proactive lifeboat, sailing. Note unzipped middle section of canopy and reefed sail. An image depicting the sinking of RMS Titanic surrounded by lifeboats Inflatable lifeboats may be equipped with auto-inflation (carbon dioxide or nitrogen ) canisters or mechanical pumps
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RMS Carpathia
RMS CARPATHIA was a Cunard Line
Cunard Line
transatlantic passenger steamship built by Swan Hunter ">'s largest liners, as of 1898 RMS Campania
RMS Campania
and RMS Lucania , had a reputation for size and speed, both being of 12,950 gross register tons (grt) and having held the Blue Riband for the fastest crossing of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. However, Norddeutscher Lloyd's new liner SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse had taken the Blue Riband from them in 1897, while White Star was planning to place a new 17,000-grt liner, RMS Oceanic into service. Cunard also updated its fleet during this time, ordering three new liners, SS Ivernia , RMS Saxonia , and Carpathia
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Changes In Safety Practices After The Sinking Of The RMS Titanic
The sinking of the RMS Titanic
RMS Titanic
resulted in the following changes in maritime policy. CONTENTS * 1 Lifeboats * 2 24-hour radio watch and distress rockets * 3 International Ice Patrol
International Ice Patrol
* 4 Ship design changes * 5 References LIFEBOATS Titanic's recovered lifeboats Alexander Carlisle, Harland and Wolff's general manager and chairman of the managing directors, suggested that Titanic
Titanic
use a new, larger type of davit which could give the ship the potential to carry 48 lifeboats ; this would have provided enough seats for everyone on board. However, the White Star Line decreed that only 20 lifeboats would be carried, which could accommodate about 38% of those on board when the ship was filled to capacity
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J. P. Morgan
JOHN PIERPONT MORGAN SR. (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation in late 19th and early 20th Century United States. In 1892, Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric
General Electric
. He was also instrumental in the creation of the United States Steel Corporation , International Harvester and AT&T
AT&T
. At the height of Morgan's career during the early 1900s, he and his partners had financial investments in many large corporations and had significant influence over the nation's high finance and United States Congress members. He directed the banking coalition that stopped the Panic of 1907
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International Mercantile Marine Co.
The INTERNATIONAL MERCANTILE MARINE CO., originally the International Navigation Company , was a trust formed in the early twentieth century as an attempt by J.P. Morgan
J.P. Morgan
to monopolize the shipping trade. The result was heavy losses for Morgan. IMM was founded by shipping magnates Clement Griscom of the American Line and Red Star Line , Bernard N. Baker
Bernard N. Baker
of the Atlantic Transport Line , J. Bruce Ismay
J. Bruce Ismay
of the White Star Line
White Star Line
, and John Ellerman of the Leyland Line
Leyland Line
. The Dominion Line was also amalgamated. The project was bankrolled by J.P. Morgan
J.P. Morgan
it emerged from the receivership in 1916
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