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Quechuan And Aymaran Spelling Shift
In recent years, Peru
Peru
and Bolivia
Bolivia
have revised the official spelling for place-names originating from Aymara and the Quechuan languages. A standardized alphabet for Quechua was adopted by the Peruvian government in 1975; a revision in 1985 moved to a three-vowel orthography.[1] The major changes are to replace the digraph hu with the single letter w, and to replace the consonants c/q[u] with either k or q, as appropriate in the word in question. K and q represent different sounds in most Andean languages: k is a velar stop, as in Spanish and English; q is a uvular stop [q]
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Peru
Coordinates: 10°S 76°W / 10°S 76°W / -10; -76 Republic
Republic
of Peru República del Perú  (Spanish)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union"Anthem: "Himno Nacional del Perú"  (Spanish) "National Anthem of Peru"National SealGran Sello del Estado  (Spanish) Great Seal of the StateLocation of  Peru  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Lima 12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / 12.0433°S 77
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Bolivia
Coordinates: 16°42′43″S 64°39′58″W / 16.712°S 64.666°W / -16.712; -64.666Plurinational State of BoliviaEstado Plurinacional de Bolivia  (Spanish) Tetã Hetãvoregua Volívia  (Guaraní) Buliwya Mamallaqta  (Quechua) Wuliwya Suyu  (Aymara)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "La Unión es la Fuerza" (Spanish) "Unity is Strength"[1]Anthem: Himno Nacional de Bolivia  (Spanish)Location of  Bolivia  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital Sucre
Sucre
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Toponym
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.Contents1 Etymology 2 Meaning and history 3 Issues 4 Noted toponymists 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksEtymology[edit] The word "toponymy" is derived from the Greek words tópos (τόπος) "place" and ónoma (ὄνομα) "name". Toponymy is itself a branch of onomastics, the study of names of all kinds. Meaning and history[edit] Toponym is the general name for any place or geographical entity.[1] Related, more specific types of toponym include hydronym for a body of water and oronym for a mountain or hill
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Andes
The Andes
Andes
or Andean Mountains (Spanish: Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They form a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, about 200 to 700 km (120 to 430 mi) wide (widest between 18° south and 20° south latitude), and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes
Andes
extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina
Argentina
and Chile. Along their length, the Andes
Andes
are split into several ranges, which are separated by intermediate depressions. The Andes
Andes
are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Arequipa, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz
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Ejective Consonant
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream. In the phonology of a particular language, ejectives may contrast with aspirated, voiced and tenuis consonants
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Aspirated Consonant
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. In English, aspirated consonants are allophones in complementary distribution with their unaspirated counterparts, but in some other languages, notably most Indian and East Asian languages, the difference is contrastive, while in Arabic and Persian, all stops are aspirated.[citation needed] To feel or see the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds, one can put a hand or a lit candle in front of one's mouth, and say spin [spɪn] and then pin [pʰɪn]
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Academia Mayor De La Lengua Quechua
The Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua (AMLQ, Highest Academy of the Quechua Language; Quechua: Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur) is a private institution in Cusco, founded in 1990, concerned with the "purity" of Quechua. The AMLQ takes the point of view that there is only one single Quechua language and that the present Quechua of the city of Cusco, with all its regional peculiarities (and not any intermediate form like Southern Quechua) should be the official standard for all Quechua; it uses the term "Inka Quechua" (quechua inka or inka qheswa) to refer to present-day Cusco
Cusco
Quechua
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Allophone
In phonology, an allophone (/ˈæləfoʊn/; from the Greek: ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.[1] For example, [pʰ] (as in pin) and [p] (as in spin which is less aspirated) are allophones for the phoneme /p/ in the English language. The specific allophone selected in a given situation is often predictable from the phonetic context (such allophones are called positional variants), but sometimes allophones occur in free variation. Replacing a sound by another allophone of the same phoneme will usually not change the meaning of a word, although sometimes the result may sound non-native or even unintelligible
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Open Vowel
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth. Open vowels are sometimes also called low vowels (in American terminology [1]) in reference to the low position of the tongue. In the context of the phonology of any particular language, a low vowel can be any vowel that is more open than a mid vowel
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Phonology
Phonology
Phonology
is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages
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Qurikancha
Coricancha,[1][2][3][4][5] Koricancha,[6][7][8][9] Qoricancha[10] or Qorikancha[11][12] (from Quechua quri gold; kancha enclosure)[13] was the most important temple in the Inca Empire.Contents1 History 2 Images 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Originally named Intikancha
Intikancha
or Intiwasi,[11] it was dedicated to Inti, and is located at the old Inca capital of Cusco
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Cusco
Cusco
Cusco
(Spanish: Cuzco, [ˈkusko]; Quechua: Qusqu or Quechua: Qosqo, IPA: [ˈqɔsqɔ]), often spelled Cuzco (/ˈkuːskoʊ/), is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes
Andes
mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region
Cusco Region
as well as the Cusco Province. In 2013, the city had a population of 435,114. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft). The site was the historic capital of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
from the 13th until the 16th-century Spanish conquest. In 1983 Cusco
Cusco
was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO. It has become a major tourist destination, hosting nearly 2 million visitors a year
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Voiceless Uvular Stop
The voiceless uvular stop or voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is pronounced like a voiceless velar stop [k], except that the tongue makes contact not on the soft palate but on the uvula. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨q⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is q. There is also the voiceless pre-uvular stop[1] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless uvular stop, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless velar stop. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ⟨q̟⟩ or ⟨q˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨q⟩) or ⟨k̠⟩ (retracted ⟨k⟩)
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Velar Consonant
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum). Since the velar region of the roof of the mouth is relatively extensive and the movements of the dorsum are not very precise, velars easily undergo assimilation, shifting their articulation back or to the front depending on the quality of adjacent vowels.[1] They often become automatically fronted, that is partly or completely palatal before a following front vowel, and retracted, that is partly or completely uvular before back vowels. Palatalised velars (like English /k/ in keen or cube) are sometimes referred to as palatovelars.[citation needed][by whom?] Many languages also have labialized velars, such as [kʷ], in which the articulation is accompanied by rounding of the lips. There are also labial–velar consonants, which are doubly articulated at the velum and at the lips, such as [k͡p]
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