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Quechua Language
QUECHUA (/ˈkɛtʃuə/ , in AmE also /ˈkɛtʃwɑː/ ) , known as RUNASIMI ("people's language") in the Quechuan language, is an indigenous language family , with variations spoken by the Quechua peoples , primarily living in the Andes
Andes
and highlands of South America . Derived from a common ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas , with a total of probably some 8–10 million speakers. Approximately 25% (7.7 million) of Peruvians speak some variation of Quechua. It is perhaps most widely known for being the main language of the Inca Empire . The colonisers initially encouraged its use, but from the middle of their reign they suppressed it. However, Quechua ultimately survived , and variants are still widely spoken today
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard is maintained in conjunction with ISO/IEC 10646 , and both are code-for-code identical. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts)
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Indigenous Languages Of The Americas
INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES OF THE AMERICAS are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska
Alaska
and Greenland
Greenland
to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas
Americas
. These indigenous languages consist of dozens of distinct language families , as well as many language isolates and unclassified languages . Many proposals to group these into higher-level families have been made, such as Joseph Greenberg's Amerind hypothesis. This scheme is rejected by nearly all specialists. According to UNESCO
UNESCO
, most of the indigenous American languages in North America are critically endangered, and many are already extinct. The most widely spoken indigenous language is Southern Quechua , with about 6 to 7 million speakers, primarily in South America
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Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
. Its central administration, the Holy See
Holy See
, is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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International Phonetic Alphabet
The INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet . It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language . The IPA is used by lexicographers , foreign language students and teachers, linguists , speech-language pathologists , singers , actors , constructed language creators and translators . The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones , phonemes , intonation and the separation of words and syllables . To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping , and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate , an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
, may be used
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany, and since 2015 at the new Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena
Jena
, Germany. In addition to the languoid catalogue (the catalog of the world's languages and language families), Glottolog provides a comprehensive bibliography on the world's smaller languages
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ISO 639-1
ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes . Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international and formal shorthand for indicating languages
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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Evangelism
EVANGELISM is the preaching of the gospel with the intention of exposing God's love to all mankind through Jesus
Jesus
Christ. Christians who specialize in evangelism are often known as evangelists, whether they are in their home communities or living as missionaries in the field, although some Christian traditions refer to such people as missionaries in either case. Some Christian traditions consider evangelists to be in a leadership position; they may be found preaching to large meetings or in governance roles. Christian groups who encourage evangelism are sometimes known as evangelistic or evangelist. The scriptures do not use the word evangelism, but evangelist is used in (the translations of) Acts 21:8, Ephesians 4:11, and 2 Timothy 4:5
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Túpac Amaru II
JOSé GABRIEL TúPAC AMARU (March 10, 1738 – May 18, 1781) — known as TúPAC AMARU II — was the leader of a large Andean uprising against the Spanish in Peru
Peru
, where its quelling resulted in his death. He later became a mythical figure in the Peruvian struggle for independence and indigenous rights movement, as well as an inspiration to myriad causes in Spanish America and beyond
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Prestige Dialect
PRESTIGE is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community , relative to other languages or dialects. The concept of prestige in sociolinguistics provides one explanation for the phenomenon of variation in form, among speakers of a language or languages. Prestige varieties are those varieties which are generally considered, by a society, to be the most correct or otherwise superior variety. The prestige variety, in many cases, is the standard form of the language though there are exceptions, particularly in situations of covert prestige where a non-standard dialect is highly valued. Sociolinguistic prestige is especially visible in situations where two or more distinct languages are in use, and in diverse , socially stratified urban areas , in which there are likely to be speakers of different languages and/or dialects interacting frequently
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Mutual Intelligibility
In linguistics , MUTUAL INTELLIGIBILITY is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort. It is sometimes used as an important criterion for distinguishing languages from dialects, although sociolinguistic factors are often also used. Intelligibility between languages can be asymmetric, with speakers of one understanding more of the other than speakers of the other understanding the first. When it is relatively symmetric, it is characterized as "mutual". It exists in differing degrees among many related or geographically proximate languages of the world, often in the context of a dialect continuum
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Romance Languages
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Bad
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Dialect Continuum
A DIALECT CONTINUUM or DIALECT CHAIN is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that each differs only slightly from its neighbors, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible . That happens, for example, across large parts of India or the Maghreb
Maghreb
. Historically, it also happened in various parts of Europe
Europe
such as between Portugal
Portugal
, southern Belgium
Belgium
and southern Italy , and between Flanders
Flanders
and Austria
Austria
. Leonard Bloomfield used the name DIALECT AREA. Charles F. Hockett used the term L-COMPLEX. It is analogous to a ring species in evolutionary biology
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Queens
QUEENS is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City
New York City
. It is geographically adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
at the southwestern end of Long Island
Long Island
, and to Nassau County further east on Long Island; in addition, Queens
Queens
shares water borders with the boroughs of Manhattan
Manhattan
and the Bronx . Coterminous with QUEENS COUNTY since 1899, the borough of Queens
Queens
is the second-largest in population (after Brooklyn), with a census-estimated 2,333,054 residents in 2016, approximately 48% of them foreign-born . Queens County
County
also is the second-most populous county in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of New York , behind the neighboring borough of Brooklyn, which is coterminous with Kings County
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