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Quechua Language
Quechua (/ˈkɛtʃuə/, in AmE also /ˈkɛtʃwɑː/)[2], known as Runasimi ("people's language") in the Quechuan language, is an indigenous language family, with variations spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes
Andes
and highlands of South America.[3] Derived from a common ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas, with a total of probably some 8–10 million speakers.[4] Approximately 25% (7.7 million) of Peruvians speak some variation of Quechua.[5][6] It is perhaps most widely known for being the main language of the Inca Empire. The colonisers initially encouraged its use, but from the middle of their reign they suppressed it
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Arabic
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Spoken Language
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language. Many languages have no written form and so are only spoken. An oral language or vocal language is a language produced with the vocal tract, as opposed to a sign language, which is produced with the hands and face. The term "spoken language" is sometimes used to mean only vocal languages, especially by linguists, making all three terms synonyms by excluding sign languages. Others refer to sign language as "spoken", especially in contrast to written transcriptions of signs.[1][2][3] In spoken language, much of the meaning is determined by the context. That contrasts with written language in which more of the meaning is provided directly by the text. In spoken language, the truth of a proposition is determined by common-sense reference to experience, but in written language, a greater emphasis is placed on logical and coherent argument
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Alfredo Torero
Alfredo is a cognate of the Germanic name Alfred and a common Italian, Galician, Portuguese and Spanish language
Spanish language
personal name that may refer to: Alfredo Arma
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Túpac Amaru II
José Gabriel Túpac Amaru
Túpac Amaru
(March 10, 1738 – May 18, 1781) — known as Túpac Amaru
Túpac Amaru
II — was the leader of a large Andean uprising against the Spanish in Peru, where its quelling resulted in his death.[1] He later became a mythical figure in the Peruvian struggle for independence and indigenous rights movement, as well as an inspiration to myriad causes in Spanish America and beyond.Contents1 Early life 2 The Corregidores and the Exploitation of the Natives 3 Rebellion3.1 Death 3.2 Aftermath 3.3 Consequences4 Quotations 5 Legacy5.1 In Peru 5.2 In novels 5.3 Around the world6 Further reading 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEarly life[edit] Túpac Amaru
Túpac Amaru
II was born José Gabriel Condorcanqui in Surimana, Tungasuca, in the province of Cusco, to Miguel Condorcanqui Usquionsa Tupac Amaru, kuraka of three towns in the Tinta district, and María Rosa Noguera
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Evangelism
In Christianity, Evangelism
Evangelism
is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel
Gospel
with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ. Christians who specialize in evangelism are often known as evangelists, whether they are in their home communities or living as missionaries in the field, although some Christian traditions refer to such people as missionaries in either case. Some Christian traditions consider evangelists to be in a leadership position; they may be found preaching to large meetings or in governance roles. Christian groups who encourage evangelism are sometimes known as evangelistic or evangelist
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Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Queens
Queens
Queens
is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City. It is geographically adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
at the southwestern end of Long Island, and to Nassau County farther east on Long Island; in addition, Queens
Queens
shares water borders with the boroughs of Manhattan
Manhattan
and the Bronx. Coterminous with Queens County since 1899, the borough of Queens
Queens
is the second-largest in population (after Brooklyn), with a census-estimated 2,358,582 residents in 2017,[1] approximately 48% of them foreign-born.[2] Queens
Queens
County also is the second-most populous county in the U.S. state of New York, behind the neighboring borough of Brooklyn, which is coterminous with Kings County
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Dialect Continuum
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible. That happens, for example, across large parts of India
India
(the Indo-Aryan languages) or the Arab world
Arab world
(Arabic). Historically, it also happened in various parts of Europe
Europe
such as between Portugal, southern Belgium (Wallonia) and southern Italy
Italy
(Western Romance languages) and between Flanders
Flanders
and Austria
Austria
(German dialects). Leonard Bloomfield used the name dialect area.[1] Charles F
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Prestige Dialect
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects. The concept of prestige in sociolinguistics provides one explanation for the phenomenon of variation in form, among speakers of a language or languages.[1] Prestige varieties are those varieties which are generally considered, by a society, to be the most correct or otherwise superior variety
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Mutual Intelligibility
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort. It is sometimes used as an important criterion for distinguishing languages from dialects, although sociolinguistic factors are often also used. Intelligibility between languages can be asymmetric, with speakers of one understanding more of the other than speakers of the other understanding the first. When it is relatively symmetric, it is characterized as "mutual"
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Romance Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Germanic Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Indigenous Languages Of The Americas
Indigenous languages of the Americas
Americas
are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska
Alaska
and Greenland
Greenland
to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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