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Quadrilles
The QUADRILLE is a dance that was fashionable in late 18th- and 19th-century Europe and its colonies. Performed by four couples in a rectangular formation, it is related to American square dancing . The Lancers , a variant of the quadrille, became popular in the late 19th century and was still danced in the 20th century in folk-dance clubs. A derivative found in the Francophone Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
is known as kwadril , and the dance is also still found in Madagascar
Madagascar
and is within old Jamaican / Caribbean culture. The quadrille consists of a chain of four to six contredanses , courtly versions of English country dances that had been taken up at the court of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and spread across Europe. Latterly the quadrille was frequently danced to a medley of opera melodies
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Lewis Carroll
CHARLES LUTWIDGE DODGSON (/ˈtʃɑːrlz ˈlʌtwɪdʒ ˈdɒdsən/ ; 27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name LEWIS CARROLL (/ˈkærəl/ ), was an English writer , mathematician , logician , Anglican deacon , and photographer . His most famous writings are Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland , its sequel Through the Looking-Glass , which includes the poem " Jabberwocky
Jabberwocky
", and the poem The Hunting of the Snark
The Hunting of the Snark
, all examples of the genre of literary nonsense . He is noted for his facility at word play , logic and fantasy. There are societies in many parts of the world dedicated to the enjoyment and promotion of his works and the investigation of his life
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Alice's Adventures In Wonderland
ALICE\'S ADVENTURES IN WONDERLAND (commonly shortened to ALICE IN WONDERLAND) is an 1865 fantasy novel written by English mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson
under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
. It tells of a girl named Alice
Alice
falling through a rabbit hole into a fantasy world populated by peculiar, anthropomorphic creatures. The tale plays with logic , giving the story lasting popularity with adults as well as with children. It is considered to be one of the best examples of the literary nonsense genre. Its narrative course and structure, characters and imagery have been enormously influential in both popular culture and literature, especially in the fantasy genre
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Balance Of Power In International Relations
The BALANCE OF POWER theory in international relations suggests that national security is enhanced when military capability is distributed so that no one state is strong enough to dominate all others. If one state becomes much stronger than others, the theory predicts that it will take advantage of its strength and attack weaker neighbors, thereby providing an incentive for those threatened to unite in a defensive coalition . Some realists maintain that this would be more stable as aggression would appear unattractive and would be averted if there was equilibrium of power between the rival coalitions. When confronted by a significant external threat, states that wish to form alliances may "balance " or "bandwagon ". Balancing is defined as allying with others against the prevailing threat, while states that have bandwagoned have aligned with the threat . States may also employ other alliance tactics, such as buck-passing and chain-ganging
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Stately Quadrille
"STATELY QUADRILLE" is a term popularly used to describe the constantly shifting alliances between the Great Powers
Great Powers
of Europe during the 18th century. The ultimate objective was to maintain the balance of power in Europe to stop any one alliance or country becoming too strong. It takes its name from the quadrille , a dance in which the participants constantly swap partners. The most widely cited instance was in 1756, when Britain and Austria abandoned their 25-year-long Anglo-Austrian Alliance and instead made new alliances with their former enemies, Prussia
Prussia
and France, respectively. That was known as the Diplomatic Revolution . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Quadrille
Quadrille
* 3 Decline * 4 See also * 5 Further reading BACKGROUNDShifting alliances had long been a factor in European politics and were often regarded as responses to shifting power and threat
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Waltz
The WALTZ (from German: "Walzer" pronounced ) is a ballroom and folk dance , normally in triple (help ·info ) time , performed primarily in closed position . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Variants * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORY Main article: Seikilos epitaph Typical waltz rhythm Melody sung in an approximation of Koine Greek pronunciation and in modern popular vocal style. ------------------------- Problems playing this file? See media help . Seikilos epitaph God Pan and a Maenad
Maenad
dancing. Ancient Greek red-figured olpe from Apulia , ca. 320–310 BCE. Pan's right hand fingers are in a snapping position. Play media Waltz
Waltz
There are several references to a sliding or gliding dance that would evolve into the WALTZ that date from 16th century Europe, including the representations of the printer H.S. Beheim
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Josef Lanner
JOSEPH LANNER (12 April 1801 – 14 April 1843) was an Austrian dance music composer. He is best remembered as one of the earliest Viennese composers to reform the waltz from a simple peasant dance to something that even the highest society could enjoy, either as an accompaniment to the dance, or for the music's own sake. He was just as famous as his friend and musical rival Johann Strauss I , who was better known outside of Austria
Austria
in their day because of his concert tours abroad, in particular, to France and England. Lanner had a lesser-known son, August Lanner , who was just as musically gifted and prodigious as his father. His daughter Katharina became a well known international ballet dancer, settling in London where she became an influential choreographer and teacher. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Compositions * 2.1 Works * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYLanner was born in St
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Irish Set Dance
IRISH SET DANCE, sometimes called "country sets", is a popular form of folk dancing in Ireland
Ireland
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 The Set * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYSet dances are based on quadrilles , which were court dances . These were transformed by the Irish into a unique folk dance of the Irish rural communities. When the Gaelic League was formed in 1897, it sought to discourage set dance, because it was perceived as being of foreign origins, and consequently at odds with the League's nationalist agenda. In its place, the League promoted ceili dance , a process which continued during the 1930s and 1940s with the support of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in the form of the Public Dance Halls Act 1935
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Quadrille
The QUADRILLE is a dance that was fashionable in late 18th- and 19th-century Europe and its colonies. Performed by four couples in a rectangular formation, it is related to American square dancing . The Lancers , a variant of the quadrille, became popular in the late 19th century and was still danced in the 20th century in folk-dance clubs. A derivative found in the Francophone Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
is known as kwadril , and the dance is also still found in Madagascar
Madagascar
and is within old Jamaican / Caribbean culture. The quadrille consists of a chain of four to six contredanses , courtly versions of English country dances that had been taken up at the court of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and spread across Europe. Latterly the quadrille was frequently danced to a medley of opera melodies
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Square Dance
A SQUARE DANCE is a dance for four couples (eight dancers) arranged in a square, with one couple on each side, facing the middle of the square. Square dances were first documented in 16th-century England but were also quite common in France and throughout Europe. They came to North America with the European settlers and have undergone considerable development there. In some countries and regions, through preservation and repetition, square dances have attained the status of a folk dance . The Western American square dance may be the most widely known form worldwide, possibly due to its association in the 20th century with the romanticized image of the American cowboy . Square dancing is, therefore, strongly associated with the United States. Nineteen U.S. states have designated it as their official state dance
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New International Encyclopedia
The NEW INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd, Mead and Company
Dodd, Mead and Company
. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia (1884) and was updated in 1906, 1914 and 1926. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Features * 3 Contributors and office editors * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe New International Encyclopedia
New International Encyclopedia
was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia (1884). Initially, the International Cyclopaedia was largely a reprint of Alden's Library of Universal Knowledge, which was a reprint of the British Chambers\'s Encyclopaedia with American additions (including many biographical entries for Americans). The local Cyclopaedia was much improved by editors Harry Thurston Peck and Selim Peabody
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Wikisource
WIKISOURCE is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki , operated by the Wikimedia Foundation . Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project (each instance usually representing a different language); multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts (its first text was the Déclaration universelle des Droits de l\'Homme ), it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began in November 24, 2003 under the name PROJECT SOURCEBERG, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg . The name Wikisource
Wikisource
was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later
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Sarah Villiers, Countess Of Jersey
SARAH SOPHIA CHILD VILLIERS, COUNTESS OF JERSEY (4 March 1785 – 26 January 1867), born LADY SARAH FANE, was an English noblewoman, and through her marriage a member of the Villiers family . She was the eldest daughter of John Fane, 10th Earl of Westmorland , and Sarah Anne Child . Her mother was the only child of Robert Child , the principal shareholder in the banking firm Child and she was eventually persuaded to remove the ban. In politics she was a Tory
Tory
, although she lacked the passion for politics shown by her cousin Harriet Arbuthnot . On hearing that the Duke of Wellington
Duke of Wellington
had fallen from power in 1830, she burst into tears in public. She reportedly "moved heaven and earth" against the Reform Act 1832 . Lady Jersey was known by the nickname Silence; the nickname was ironic since, famously, she almost never stopped talking
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"Sarah Villie