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Quadrille
The QUADRILLE is a dance that was fashionable in late 18th- and 19th-century Europe and its colonies. Performed by four couples in a rectangular formation, it is related to American square dancing . The Lancers , a variant of the quadrille, became popular in the late 19th century and was still danced in the 20th century in folk-dance clubs. A derivative found in the Francophone Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
is known as kwadril , and the dance is also still found in Madagascar
Madagascar
and is within old Jamaican / Caribbean culture. The quadrille consists of a chain of four to six contredanses , courtly versions of English country dances that had been taken up at the court of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and spread across Europe. Latterly the quadrille was frequently danced to a medley of opera melodies
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Balance Of Power In International Relations
The BALANCE OF POWER theory in international relations suggests that national security is enhanced when military capability is distributed so that no one state is strong enough to dominate all others. If one state becomes much stronger than others, the theory predicts that it will take advantage of its strength and attack weaker neighbors, thereby providing an incentive for those threatened to unite in a defensive coalition . Some realists maintain that this would be more stable as aggression would appear unattractive and would be averted if there was equilibrium of power between the rival coalitions. When confronted by a significant external threat, states that wish to form alliances may "balance " or "bandwagon ". Balancing is defined as allying with others against the prevailing threat, while states that have bandwagoned have aligned with the threat . States may also employ other alliance tactics, such as buck-passing and chain-ganging
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Josef Lanner
JOSEPH LANNER (12 April 1801 – 14 April 1843) was an Austrian dance music composer. He is best remembered as one of the earliest Viennese composers to reform the waltz from a simple peasant dance to something that even the highest society could enjoy, either as an accompaniment to the dance, or for the music's own sake. He was just as famous as his friend and musical rival Johann Strauss I , who was better known outside of Austria
Austria
in their day because of his concert tours abroad, in particular, to France and England. Lanner had a lesser-known son, August Lanner , who was just as musically gifted and prodigious as his father. His daughter Katharina became a well known international ballet dancer, settling in London where she became an influential choreographer and teacher. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Compositions * 2.1 Works * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYLanner was born in St
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Waltz
The WALTZ (from German: "Walzer" pronounced ) is a ballroom and folk dance , normally in triple (help ·info ) time , performed primarily in closed position . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Variants * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORY Main article: Seikilos epitaph Typical waltz rhythm Melody sung in an approximation of Koine Greek pronunciation and in modern popular vocal style. ------------------------- Problems playing this file? See media help . Seikilos epitaph God Pan and a Maenad
Maenad
dancing. Ancient Greek red-figured olpe from Apulia , ca. 320–310 BCE. Pan's right hand fingers are in a snapping position. Play media Waltz
Waltz
There are several references to a sliding or gliding dance that would evolve into the WALTZ that date from 16th century Europe, including the representations of the printer H.S. Beheim
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Arabesque (ballet Position)
In dance (particularly ballet ), ARABESQUE (French: ; literally, "in Arabic fashion") is a body position in which a dancer stands on one leg (the supporting leg) with the other leg (the working leg) turned out and extended behind the body, with both legs held straight. In classical ballet , an arabesque can be executed with the supporting leg en pointe or demi pointe or with foot flat on the floor. The working leg may touch the floor in tendu back (arabesque par terre) or be elevated. Common elevation angles of the raised leg are 45° (à demi hauteur) and 90° (à la hauteur). When the angle is much greater than 90° and the body trunk leans forward to counterbalance the working leg, the position is called arabesque penché (or penchée, a common misspelling of the French word ). The arms may be held in various positions
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Lewis Carroll
CHARLES LUTWIDGE DODGSON (/ˈtʃɑːrlz ˈlʌtwɪdʒ ˈdɒdsən/ ; 27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name LEWIS CARROLL (/ˈkærəl/ ), was an English writer , mathematician , logician , Anglican deacon , and photographer . His most famous writings are Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland , its sequel Through the Looking-Glass , which includes the poem " Jabberwocky
Jabberwocky
", and the poem The Hunting of the Snark
The Hunting of the Snark
, all examples of the genre of literary nonsense . He is noted for his facility at word play , logic and fantasy. There are societies in many parts of the world dedicated to the enjoyment and promotion of his works and the investigation of his life
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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New International Encyclopedia
The NEW INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd, Mead and Company
Dodd, Mead and Company
. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia (1884) and was updated in 1906, 1914 and 1926. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Features * 3 Contributors and office editors * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe New International Encyclopedia
New International Encyclopedia
was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia (1884). Initially, the International Cyclopaedia was largely a reprint of Alden's Library of Universal Knowledge, which was a reprint of the British Chambers\'s Encyclopaedia with American additions (including many biographical entries for Americans). The local Cyclopaedia was much improved by editors Harry Thurston Peck and Selim Peabody
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Wikisource
WIKISOURCE is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki , operated by the Wikimedia Foundation . Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project (each instance usually representing a different language); multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts (its first text was the Déclaration universelle des Droits de l\'Homme ), it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began in November 24, 2003 under the name PROJECT SOURCEBERG, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg . The name Wikisource
Wikisource
was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Chassé
CHASSE or CHASSé (French for "to chase") is a dance step used in many dances in many variations. All variations are triple-step patterns of gliding character in a "step-together-step" pattern. The word came from ballet terminology . CONTENTS * 1 Varieties * 2 Ballet * 3 Ballroom * 4 Ice dancing
Ice dancing
or roller dancing * 5 Line dancing * 6 References VARIETIESThere is a large variety of Chasses across many dances. Variations include: * The direction may be sideways, diagonal or even curving. * Sizes of steps may vary. This also concerns the second, "Together", step: the moving foot may land right beside the standing foot or leave some space, or even barely move from its previous position. * Timing may vary
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Croisé
Because ballet became formalized in France
France
, a significant part of BALLET TERMINOLOGY is in the French language
French language
. Contents * Top * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z * See also * References * External links AÀ LA SECONDE(French pronunciation: ​ ) A position of the leg to the side with the body facing directly forward ("en face"). À LA QUATRIèME(French pronunciation: ​ ) One of the directions of body, facing the audience (en face), arms in second position, with one leg extended either to fourth position in front (quatrième devant) or fourth position behind (quatrième derrière). À TERRE(French pronunciation: ​ ) Touching the floor
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Louis XIV
LOUIS XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as LOUIS THE GREAT (Louis le Grand) or the SUN KING (le Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who reigned as King of France
King of France
from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history
European history
. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France
France
was a leader in the growing centralization of power. Louis began his personal rule of France
France
in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin . An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings , which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital
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Lesser Antilles
The LESSER ANTILLES (also known as the CARIBBEES) are a group of islands in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea . Most form a long, partly volcanic island arc between the Greater Antilles
Greater Antilles
to the north-west and the continent of South America
South America
. The islands form the eastern boundary of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea with the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. Together, the Lesser Antilles
Antilles
and the Greater Antilles
Greater Antilles
compose the Antilles
Antilles
(or the Caribbean
Caribbean
in its narrowest definition). When combined with the Lucayan Archipelago , all three are known as the West Indies
West Indies

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Madagascar
MADAGASCAR (/ˌmædəˈɡæskər/ ; Malagasy : Madagasikara), officially the REPUBLIC OF MADAGASCAR (Malagasy: Repoblikan'i Madagasikara ; French: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic , is an island country in the Indian Ocean , off the coast of Southeast Africa
Africa
. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
(the fourth-largest island in the world), and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana , Madagascar
Madagascar
split from the Indian peninsula around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar
Madagascar
is a biodiversity hotspot ; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth
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Dance
DANCE is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement . This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value, and is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture .