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Qing Dynasty
Tael (liǎng) PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
Republic of China
China
Qing dynasty "Qing dynasty" in Chinese (top) and Manchu (bottom) CHINESE NAME CHINESE 清朝 TRANSCRIPTIONS STANDARD MANDARIN HANYU PINYIN Qīng cháo WADE–GILES Ch'ing1 ch'ao2 IPA WU SUZHOUNESE Tshin záu YUE: CANTONESE YALE ROMANIZATION Ching1 Chiu4 IPA JYUTPING Cing1 ciu4 SOUTHERN MIN HOKKIEN POJ Chheng tiâu TâI-Lô Tshing tiâu GREAT QING TRADITIONAL CHINESE 大清 SIMPLIFIED CHINESE 大清 TRANSCRIPTIONS STANDARD MANDARIN HANYU PINYIN Dà Qīng WADE–GILES Ta2 Ch'ing1 YUE: CANTONESE YALE ROMANIZATION Daai6 Ching1 IPA JYUTPING daai6 cing1 SOUTHERN MIN HOKKIEN POJ Tāi-chheng TâI-Lô Tāi-tshing MANCHU NAME MANCHU SCRIPT ᡩᠠᡳᠴᡳᠩ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ABKAI Daiqing gurun MöLLENDORFF Daicing gurun HISTORY OF CHINA ANCIENT NEOLITHIC c. 8500 – c. 2070 BCE XIA DYNASTY c. 2070 – c. 1600 BCE SHANG DYNASTY c. 1600 – c. 1046 BCE ZHOU DYNASTY c
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Qin Dynasty
Huang-Lao * Huangdi Sijing * Huainanzi Founding figures * Guan Zhong * Zichan * Deng Xi * Li Kui * Wu Qi * Shen Buhai * Duke Xiao of Qin * Shang Yang * Shen Dao * Zhang Yi * Xun Kuang * Han Fei * Li Si * Qin Shi Huang Han figures * Jia Yi * Liu An * Emperor Wen of Han * Emperor Wu of Han * Gongsun Hong * Zhang Tang * Huan Tan * Wang Fu * Zhuge Liang Later figures (incomplete) * Emperor Wen of Sui * Du You * Wang Anshi
Wang Anshi
* Li Shanchang * Zhang Juzheng * Xu Guangqi
Xu Guangqi
* v * t * e HISTORY OF CHINA ANCIENT NEOLITHIC c. 8500 – c. 2070 BC XIA DYNASTY c. 2070 – c. 1600 BC SHANG DYNASTY c. 1600 – c. 1046 BC ZHOU DYNASTY c
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Qing (other)
The QING DYNASTY (清朝) ruled China from 1644 to 1912. QING may also refer to: * Qing (concept) , concept in Chinese philosophy * Qing County , in Hebei, China * Qinghai , abbreviated as Qing (青), province of China * Qingdao , abbreviated as Qing (青), city in Shandong, China * Sounding stone (磬, qing), a Chinese musical instrument * Qing (顷), an old Chinese unit of area equal to 100 mu (6.14 hectares) * Qing (青), a Chinese color variously translated into English as verdant, green, blue, and black. See Blue and green in language .SEE ALSO * Hing (surname) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title QING. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Qing_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Flag Of The Qing Dynasty
The FLAG OF THE QING DYNASTY was an emblem adopted in the late 19th century featuring the Azure Dragon on a plain yellow field with the red flaming pearl of the three-legged crow in the upper left corner. It became the first national flag of China and is usually referred to as the " Yellow Dragon Flag" (simplified Chinese : 黄龙旗; traditional Chinese : 黃龍旗; pinyin : _huáng lóng qí_). Ruling China from 1644 until the overthrow of the monarchy during the Xinhai Revolution , the Qing dynasty was the last imperial dynasty in China's history. Between 1889 and 1912, the dynasty represented itself with the dragon flag. CONTENTS * 1 Design * 2 Triangular version (1862-1889) * 3 Rectangular version (1889-1912) * 4 Influence * 5 Flags based on Qing dynasty flag * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DESIGN Variant of first Yellow Dragon Flag, with traditional border decorations. Throughout the history of China's imperial dynasties, yellow was considered the royal color of successive Chinese emperors. The legendary first emperor of China was known as the Yellow Emperor (Chinese: 黃帝, Simplified Chinese: 黄帝). Members of the imperial family of China at that time were the only ones allowed to display the color yellow in buildings and on garments. The Emperor of China usually used a Chinese dragon as a symbol of his imperial power and strength
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Cup Of Solid Gold
The CUP OF SOLID GOLD (simplified Chinese : 巩金瓯; traditional Chinese : 鞏金甌; pinyin : Gǒng Jīn'ōu; Wade–Giles : Kung3 Chin1-ou1, IPA : ) was the first official national anthem of China . It was created during the Qing dynasty in 1911 and was used until 1912, the date of the establishment of the Republic of China . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Lyrics * 3 Audio File * 4 See also * 5 External links HISTORYThe melody was composed by Pu Tong (溥侗), a high-ranking officer of the Imperial Guard . The lyrics, in Classical Chinese , were penned by Yan Fu , commander of the Qing Navy. Guo Cengxin (郭曾炘), Master of Ceremonies, made some minor adjustments and arranged the music. Gong Jin'ou was adopted by the Qing government on the 13th Day and 8th Month of the 3rd Year of the Xuantong Emperor 's reign (October 4, 1911). However, the Wuchang Uprising occurred only six days later, effectively leading to the end of the Qing dynasty with the declaration of the Republic of China on January 1, 1912 and the abdication of the emperor on February 12, 1912. As a result, the anthem never gained any notability. Since it praises the Qing dynasty specifically, it is also a royal anthem
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Beijing
BEIJING, formerly romanized as PEKING, is the capital of the People\'s Republic of China and the world's third most populous city proper . It is also one of the world's most populous capital cities. The city, located in northern China , is governed as a direct-controlled municipality under the national government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts . Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighbouring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China. As a city combining both modern and traditional architecture , Beijing is an ever-changing megacity rich in history but also truly modern, exemplified in its global influence in politics , business "> , the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world , after Shanghai\'s subway system . The city\'s history dates back three millennia . As the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China , Beijing has been the political center of the country for much of the past eight centuries. With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls , Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital
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Shuntian Prefecture
SHUNTIAN PREFECTURE was an administrative region of China during the Ming and Qing dynasties, equivalent to Beijing Municipality in today's People\'s Republic of China . However, the area of the prefecture jurisdiction was different. The term Shuntian fu also referred to the yamen (office) of the prefecture's local government. CONTENTS * 1 Evolution * 2 Jurisdiction * 3 Administrative Level * 4 Administration of Beijing
Beijing
* 5 References EVOLUTIONDuring the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
, the imperial capital circuit known as Dadu circuit (大都路; Dadulu) was under control of the Central Secretariat (Zhongshu Sheng). During the eighth month of the first year of reign of the Hongwu Emperor of the new Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
, this was renamed to Beiping prefecture, and in the tenth month it was attached to Shandong province. In the first lunar month in the first year of the reign of the Yongle Emperor , the capital was renamed Beijing
Beijing
and the prefecture as Shuntian. Shuntian prefecture went through many changes during the Qing dynasty , and it was only in 1743 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor that its borders and administrative divisions were settled. Then, Shuntian prefecture was divided into four sub-divisions (路厅, luting) and twenty four sub-prefectures (州, zhou) counties (县, xian)
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Mandarin (late Imperial Lingua Franca)
MANDARIN (simplified Chinese : 官话; traditional Chinese : 官話; pinyin : Guānhuà; literally: "official speech") was the common spoken language of administration of the Chinese empire during the Ming and Qing dynasties. It arose as a practical measure, to circumvent the mutual unintelligibility of the varieties of Chinese spoken in different parts of China. Knowledge of this language was thus essential for an official career, but it was never formally defined. The language was a koiné based on Mandarin dialects , initially those spoken around Nanjing but later switching to Beijing , and developed into Standard Chinese in the 20th century. It has also been referred to as the COURT DIALECT. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Phonology * 3 Vocabulary * 4 References * 5 Further reading HISTORYBy the late imperial period, local varieties of Chinese had diverged to the extent that people from different provinces could not understand one another. In order to facilitate communication between officials from different provinces, and between officials and the inhabitants of the areas to which they were posted, imperial administrations adopted a koiné based on various northern dialects. Until well into the 19th century, this language was based on dialects spoken in the area of Nanjing , the first Ming capital and a major cultural centre, though not identical to any single dialect
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Manchu Language
MANCHU (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ _manju gisun_) is a severely endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria ; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China. Most Manchus now speak Mandarin Chinese . According to data from UNESCO, there are 10 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. Manchu language enjoys high historical value for historians of China, especially for the Qing dynasty. They supply information that is unavailable in Chinese and, when both Manchu and Chinese versions of a given text exist, they provide controls for understanding the Chinese. Like most Siberian languages, Manchu is an agglutinative language that demonstrates limited vowel harmony . It has been demonstrated that it is derived mainly from the Jurchen language though there are many loan words from Mongolian and Chinese. Its script is vertically written and taken from the Mongolian alphabet (which in turn derives from Aramaic via Uyghur and Sogdian ). Although Manchu does not have the kind of grammatical gender that many Indo-European languages do, some gendered words in Manchu are distinguished by different stem vowels, as in _ama_ "father" vs. _eme_ "mother"
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Mongolian Language
монгол хэл ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ PRONUNCIATION /mɔŋɢɔ̆ɮ xeɮ/ NATIVE TO Mongolia , REGION All of Mongolia and Inner Mongolia ; parts of Liaoning , Jilin , Heilongjiang , Xinjiang and Gansu provinces in China NATIVE SPEAKERS 5.2 million (200
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Standard Tibetan
STANDARD TIBETAN is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages . It is based on the speech of Lhasa
Lhasa
, an Ü-Tsang (Central Tibetan) dialect. For this reason, Standard Tibetan
Standard Tibetan
is often called LHASA TIBETAN. Tibetan is an official language of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. The written language is based on Classical Tibetan and is highly conservative . CONTENTS * 1 Registers * 2 Grammar * 2.1 Syntax and word order * 3 Numerals * 4 Writing system
Writing system
* 5 Phonology of modern Lhasa
Lhasa
Tibetan * 5.1 Vowels * 5.2 Tones * 5.3 Consonants * 6 Verbal system * 7 Scholarship * 8 Contemporary usage * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links REGISTERSLike many languages, Standard Tibetan
Standard Tibetan
has a variety of language registers : * _Phal-skad_ ("demotic language"): the vernacular speech. * _Zhe-sa_ ("polite respectful speech"): the formal spoken style, particularly prominent in Lhasa
Lhasa
. * _Chos-skad_ ("religious language"): the literary style in which the scriptures and other classical works are written.GRAMMAR Main article: Modern Standard Tibetan grammar SYNTAX AND WORD ORDERTibetan is an ergative language
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Uighur Language
China * Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region REGULATED BY Working Committee of Ethnic Language and Writing of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 ug Uighur, Uyghur ISO 639-2 uig Uighur, Uyghur ISO 639-3 uig Uighur, Uyghur GLOTTOLOG uigh1240 Uighur Geographical extent of Uyghur in China THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA . THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS UYGHUR TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see unjoined letters or other symbols instead of Uyghur script .The UYGHUR or UIGHUR language (/ˈwiːɡər/ ئۇيغۇر تىلى, Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or ئۇيغۇرچە, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as EASTERN TURKI, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China . Significant communities of Uyghur-speakers are located in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, and various other countries have Uyghur-speaking expatriate communities. Uyghur is an official language of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and is widely used in both social and official spheres, as well as in print, radio, and television, and is used as a common language by other ethnic minorities in Xinjiang
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Varieties Of Chinese
CHINESE, also known as SINITIC, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties , many of which are not mutually intelligible . The differences are similar to those within the Romance languages , with variation particularly strong in the more rugged southeast. These varieties, often called "dialects", have been classified into seven to ten groups, the largest being Mandarin (e.g. Beijing dialect ), Wu (e.g. Shanghainese ), Min (e.g. Taiwanese Hokkien ), and Yue (e.g. Cantonese ). Chinese varieties differ most in their phonology , and to a lesser extent in vocabulary and syntax . Southern varieties tend to have fewer initial consonants than northern and central varieties, but more often preserve the Middle Chinese final consonants. All have phonemic tones , with northern varieties tending to have fewer distinctions than southern ones. Many have tone sandhi , with the most complex patterns in the coastal area from Zhejiang to eastern Guangdong . Standard Chinese takes its phonology from the Beijing dialect, with vocabulary from the Mandarin group and grammar based on literature in the modern written vernacular . It is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan , one of the four official languages of Singapore , and one of the six official languages of the United Nations
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Heaven Worship
HEAVEN WORSHIP is a Chinese religious belief that predates Taoism and Confucianism , but was later incorporated into both. Shangdi is the supreme unknowable god of Chinese folk religion . Over time, namely following the conquests of the Zhou dynasty who worshipped Tian (天 _lit. "sky"_), Shangdi became synonymous with Tian, or Heaven. In the Han dynasty the worship of Heaven would be highly ritualistic and require that the emperor hold official sacrifices and worship at an altar of Heaven, the most famous of which is the Temple of Heaven in Beijing . Heaven worship is closely linked with ancestor veneration and polytheism , as the ancestors and the gods are seen as a medium between Heaven and man. The Emperor of China , also known as the "Son of Heaven ", derived the Mandate of Heaven , and thus his legitimacy as ruler, from his supposed ability to commune with Heaven on behalf of his nation. Early Abrahamic missionaries saw similarities between Shangdi/Tian and the Abrahamic God , and therefore rendered "God" as "Shangdi" in Chinese. ESTABLISHMENTWorship of Heaven in the southern suburb of the capital was initiated in 31 BCE and firmly established in the first century CE (Western Han)
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Buddhism
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada ( Pali
Pali
: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures , and especially their respective practices
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Chinese Folk Religion
MODEL HUMANITY: * Xian * Zhenren * Wen and wu Practices * Fenxiang * Jingxiang * Feng shui * Miaohui * Wu shamanism * Jitong mediumship * Precious scrolls Institutions and temples * Associations of good-doing * Lineage associations or churches * Chinese temple *
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