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QF 4.5-inch Howitzer
The Ordnance QF 4.5-inch howitzer
QF 4.5-inch howitzer
was the standard British Empire field (or ‘light’) howitzer of the First World War
First World War
era. It replaced the BL 5-inch howitzer
BL 5-inch howitzer
and equipped some 25% of the field artillery. It entered service in 1910 and remained in service through the interwar period and was last used in the field by British forces in early 1942. It was generally horse drawn until mechanisation in the 1930s. The QF 4.5-inch howitzer
QF 4.5-inch howitzer
was used by British and Commonwealth forces in most theatres, by Russia and by British troops in Russia in 1919. Its calibre (114 mm) and hence shell weight were greater than those of the equivalent German field howitzer (105 mm); France did not have an equivalent
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An Fórsa Cosanta Áitiúil
The Army Reserve (AR) (Irish: Cúltaca an Airm) is the land component of Ireland's Reserve Defence Forces
Reserve Defence Forces
(RDF). It is the second line reserve of the Irish Army
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Infantry
Infantry
Infantry
is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces. Also known as foot soldiers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may also use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport
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Cabinet (government)
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. They are usually called ministers, but in some jurisdictions are sometimes called secretaries. The functions of a cabinet are varied: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are typically the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures. In some countries, particularly those that use a parliamentary system (e.g., the UK), the Cabinet collectively decides the government's direction, especially in regard to legislation passed by the parliament
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Field Marshal
Field marshal
Field marshal
(or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually it is the highest rank in an army, and when it is, few (if any) persons are appointed to it. It is considered as a five-star rank (OF-10) in modern-day armed forces in many countries. Promotion to the rank of field marshal in many countries historically required extraordinary military achievement by a general (a wartime victory). However, the rank has also been used as a divisional command rank and also as a brigade command rank
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Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts
Indian RebellionSiege of Delhi Siege of LucknowUmbeyla Campaign 1868 Expedition to AbyssiniaBattle of MagdalaLushai Expedition Second Anglo-Afghan WarBattle of Charasiab Battle of Peiwar Kotal Siege of the Sherpur Cantonment Battle of KandaharSecond Boer WarSiege of Kimberley Battle of Paardeberg Battle of Poplar Grove Battle of Diamond Hill Battle of BergendalAwards Victoria Cross Knight of the Order of the Garter Knight of the Order of St Patrick Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Member of the Order of Merit Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire Knight of the Order of St John Mentioned in DespatchesRelations Frederick Roberts (son) Sir Abraham Robe
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Essen
Essen
Essen
(German pronunciation: [ˈʔɛsn̩] ( listen); Latin: Assindia) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Its population of approximately 589,000 (as of 31 March 2016[update]) makes it the ninth-largest city in Germany. It is the central city of the northern (Ruhr) part of the Rhine- Ruhr
Ruhr
metropolitan area and seat to several of the region's authorities
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Royal Field Artillery
The Royal Field Artillery
Royal Field Artillery
(RFA) of the British Army
British Army
provided close artillery support for the infantry.[1] It came into being when created as a distinct arm of the Royal Regiment of Artillery
Royal Regiment of Artillery
on 1 July 1899, and was re-amalgamated back into the Regiment proper, along with the Royal Garrison Artillery, in 1924.[2] The Royal Field Artillery
Royal Field Artillery
was the largest arm of the artillery. It was responsible for the medium calibre guns and howitzers deployed close to the front line and was reasonably mobile
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British Expeditionary Force (World War I)
247,400 (1914–1915) 2.04 million [1](1916–1918)Nickname(s) BEFEngagements See belowCommandersCommander-in-chief (1915–1918) Field Marshal Douglas HaigCommander-in-chief (1914–1915) General
General
John FrenchPrincipal battles of the British Expeditionary Force1914 Battle of Mons Battle of Le Cateau First Battle of the Marne First Battle of the Aisne Battle of La Bassée First Battle of Ypres 1915 Battle of Neuve Chapelle Second Battle of Ypres Battle of Festubert Battle of Loos 1916 Battle of the Somme Battle of Fromelles 1917 Battle of Arras Battle of Messines Battle of Passchendale Firs
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Brass
Brass
Brass
is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc. The proportions of zinc and copper can vary to create different types of brass alloys with varying mechanical and electrical properties.[1] It is a substitutional alloy: atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structure. In contrast, bronze is an alloy of copper and tin.[2] Both bronze and brass may include small proportions of a range of other elements including arsenic, lead, phosphorus, aluminium, manganese, and silicon
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Obturation
In the field of firearms and airguns, obturation denotes necessary barrel blockage or fit by a deformed soft projectile[1] (obturation in general is closing up an opening). A bullet or pellet, made of soft material and often with a concave base, will flare under the heat and pressure of firing, filling the bore and engaging the barrel's rifling. The mechanism by which an undersized soft-metal projectile enlarges to fill the barrel is, for hollow-base bullets, expansion from gas pressure within the base cavity and, for solid-base bullets, "upsetting"—the combined shortening and thickening that occurs when a malleable metal object is struck forcibly at one end. For shotgun shells which have multiple pellets much smaller than the barrel bore, obturation is achieved by placing a plastic wad or biodegradable card of the same diameter as the barrel between the propellant powder and the pellets
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Brigade
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements. It is roughly equivalent to an enlarged or reinforced regiment. Two or more brigades may constitute a division. Brigades formed into divisions are usually infantry or armored (sometimes referred to as combined arms brigades). In addition to combat units, they may include combat support units or sub-units, such as artillery and engineers, and logistic units or sub-units. Historically, such brigades have sometimes been called brigade-groups. On operations, a brigade may comprise both organic elements and attached elements, including some temporarily attached for a specific task. Brigades may also be specialized and comprise battalions of a single branch, for example cavalry, mechanized, armored, artillery, air defence, aviation, engineers, signals or logistic
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Division (military)
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. Infantry
Infantry
divisions during the World Wars
World Wars
ranged between 8,000 and 30,000 in nominal strength. In most armies, a division is composed of several regiments or brigades; in turn, several divisions typically make up a corps. Historically, the division has been the default combined arms unit capable of independent operations. Smaller combined arms units, such as the American Regimental combat team (RCT) during World War II, were used when conditions favored them
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Howitzer
A howitzer /ˈhaʊ.ɪtsər/ is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.Pre- World War I
World War I
290 mm howitzer battery at Charlottenlund
Charlottenlund
Fort, Denmark.In the taxonomies of artillery pieces used by European (and European-style) armies in the 17th to 20th centuries, the howitzer stood between the "gun" (characterized by a longer barrel, larger propelling charges, smaller shells, higher velocities, and flatter trajectories) and the "mortar" (which was meant to fire at even higher angles of ascent and descent)
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Battle Of The Somme
 British Empire Australia  Bermuda  Canada  India  Newfoundland  New Zealand  South Africa  Southern Rhodesia  United Kingdom France  German EmpireCommanders and leaders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Henry Rawlinson Émile Fayolle Hubert Gough Joseph Alfred Micheler Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria Max von Gallwitz Fritz von BelowStrength1st July 390,000 in 13 divisions 330,000 in 11 divisions July–November 1,530,000 in 50 divisions 1,440,000 in 48 divisions 1st July 315,000 in 10 1/2 divisions July–November 1,500,000 in 50 divisionsCasualties and losses c. 420,000[1][2][3] c. 200,000[4][5][3] c
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Western Front (World War I)
Decisive Entente victoryArmistice of Compiègne, end of World War I Central Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified, fall of the German EmpireBelligerentsEntente Powers: France French colonial empire British Empire Australia  Bermuda Canada  India  Newfoundland New Zealand  Southern Rhodesia  South Africa  United Kingdom  United States
United States
(from 1917)  Belgium  Italy (from 1915) Portugal
Portugal
(from 1916) Russian Empire (1916–17) Siam
Siam
(from 1918) Brazil
Brazil
(from 1918)Central Powers:  German Empire  Austria-HungaryCommanders and leaders Joseph Joffre Robert Nivelle Philippe Pétain Ferdinand Foch John French Douglas Haig John J
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