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QBasic
Q BASIC
BASIC
(QUICK BEGINNERS ALL PURPOSE SYMBOLIC INSTRUCTION CODE) is an IDE and interpreter for a variety of the BASIC
BASIC
programming language which is based on QuickBASIC
QuickBASIC
. Code entered into the IDE is compiled to an intermediate representation , and this IR is immediately interpreted on demand within the IDE. It can run under nearly all versions of DOS
DOS
and 32-bit versions of Windows , or through emulation via DOSBox
DOSBox
/ DOSEMU on Linux
Linux
, FreeBSD
FreeBSD
, and 64-bit versions of Windows. For its time, QBasic
QBasic
provided a state-of-the-art IDE, including a debugger with features such as on-the-fly expression evaluation and code modification
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FreeBSD
FREEBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD). Although for legal reasons FreeBSD
FreeBSD
cannot use the Unix trademark , it is a direct descendant of BSD, which was historically also called "BSD Unix" or "Berkeley Unix". The first version of FreeBSD
FreeBSD
was released in 1993, and today FreeBSD
FreeBSD
is the most widely used open-source BSD distribution, accounting for more than three-quarters of all installed systems running open-source BSD derivatives. FreeBSD
FreeBSD
has similarities with Linux
Linux
, with two major differences in scope and licensing: FreeBSD
FreeBSD
maintains a complete operating system, i.e
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Debugger
A DEBUGGER or DEBUGGING TOOL is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs (the "target" program). The code to be examined might alternatively be running on an instruction set simulator (ISS), a technique that allows great power in its ability to halt when specific conditions are encountered, but which will typically be somewhat slower than executing the code directly on the appropriate (or the same) processor. Some debuggers offer two modes of operation, full or partial simulation, to limit this impact. A "trap " occurs when the program cannot normally continue because of a programming bug or invalid data. For example, the program might have tried to use an instruction not available on the current version of the CPU or attempted to access unavailable or protected memory
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Structured Programming
STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of subroutines , block structures , for and while loops —in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which could lead to "spaghetti code " that was difficult to follow and maintain. It emerged in the late 1950s with the appearance of the ALGOL 58 and ALGOL 60 programming languages, with the latter including support for block structures. Contributing factors to its popularity and widespread acceptance, at first in academia and later among practitioners, include the discovery of what is now known as the structured program theorem in 1966, and the publication of the influential " Go To Statement Considered Harmful " open letter in 1968 by Dutch computer scientist Edsger W. Dijkstra , who coined the term "structured programming"
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Subroutines
In computer programming , a SUBROUTINE is a sequence of program instructions that perform a specific task, packaged as a unit. This unit can then be used in programs wherever that particular task should be performed. Subprograms may be defined within programs, or separately in libraries that can be used by multiple programs. In different programming languages, a subroutine may be called a PROCEDURE, a FUNCTION, a ROUTINE, a method , or a SUBPROGRAM. The generic term CALLABLE UNIT is sometimes used. The name subprogram suggests a subroutine behaves in much the same way as a computer program that is used as one step in a larger program or another subprogram. A subroutine is often coded so that it can be started (called) several times and from several places during one execution of the program, including from other subroutines, and then branch back (return) to the next instruction after the call, once the subroutine's task is done
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Linux
LINUX (/ˈlɪnəks/ ( listen ) LIN-əks ) is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel . Typically, Linux
Linux
is packaged in a form known as a Linux
Linux
distribution (or distro for short) for both desktop and server use. The defining component of a Linux distribution
Linux distribution
is the Linux kernel , an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds . Linux
Linux
was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system. Because of the dominance of the Linux
Linux
kernel-based Android OS on smartphones , Linux
Linux
has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems
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DOSEMU
DOSEMU, stylized as DOSEMU, is a compatibility layer software package that enables DOS
DOS
operating systems (e.g., MS- DOS
DOS
, DR- DOS
DOS
, Free DOS
DOS
) and application software to run atop Linux
Linux
on x86 -based PCs (IBM PC compatible computers). CONTENTS * 1 Features * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links FEATURESIt uses a combination of hardware-assisted virtualization features and high-level emulation . It can thus achieve nearly native speed for 8086-compatible DOS
DOS
operating systems and applications on x86 compatible processors, and for DOS
DOS
Protected Mode Interface (DPMI) applications on x86 compatible processors as well as on x86-64 processors. DOSEMU
DOSEMU
includes an 8086 processor emulator for use with real-mode applications in x86-64 long mode
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IR (computing)
An INTERMEDIATE REPRESENTATION (IR) is the data structure or code used internally by a compiler or virtual machine to represent source code . An IR is designed to be conducive for further processing, such as optimization and translation . A "good" IR must be accurate – capable of representing the source code without loss of information – and independent of any particular source or target language. An IR may take one of several forms: an in-memory data structure , or a special tuple - or stack -based code readable by the program. In the latter case it is also called an intermediate language
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DOS
DOS
DOS
/dɒs/ is a family of disk operating systems primarily consisting of MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and a rebranded version under the name IBM PC DOS which were introduced in 1981, as well as some later compatible systems from other manufacturers: DR-DOS (1988), ROM-DOS (1989), PTS-DOS (1993), and FreeDOS (1998). MS-DOS
MS-DOS
dominated the x86-based IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995. Dozens of other operating systems also use the acronym "DOS", including the mainframe DOS/360 from 1966. Others are Apple DOS , Apple ProDOS , Atari DOS , Commodore DOS , TRSDOS , and AmigaDOS
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Microsoft Windows
MICROSOFT WINDOWS is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft . Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows NT and Windows Embedded ; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Embedded Compact (Windows CE) or Windows Server
Windows Server
. Defunct Windows families include Windows 9x , Windows Mobile
Windows Mobile
and Windows Phone . Microsoft
Microsoft
introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs)
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While Loop
In most computer programming languages, a WHILE LOOP is a control flow statement that allows code to be executed repeatedly based on a given Boolean condition. The while loop can be thought of as a repeating if statement
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Record (computer Science)
In computer science , a RECORD (also called STRUCT or COMPOUND DATA) is a basic data structure . A record is a collection of fields , possibly of different data types, typically in fixed number and sequence . The fields of a record may also be called members, particularly in object-oriented programming . Fields may also be called elements, though these risk confusion with the elements of a collection . A tuple may or may not be considered a record, and vice versa, depending on conventions and the specific programming language. For example, a date could be stored as a record containing a numeric year field, a month field represented as a string, and a numeric day-of-month field. A Personnel record might contain a name, a salary, and a rank. A Circle record might contain a center and a radius—in this instance, the center itself might be represented as a point record containing x and y coordinates
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Intel 8086
The 8086 ("eighty eighty-six", also called IAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel
Intel
between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released. The Intel
Intel
8088 , released in 1979, is a slightly modified chip with an external 8-bit data bus (allowing the use of cheaper and fewer supporting ICs ), and is notable as the processor used in the original IBM PC
IBM PC
design, including the widespread version called IBM PC
IBM PC
XT . The 8086 gave rise to the x86 architecture , which eventually became Intel's most successful line of processors
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Intel 80286
The Intel
Intel
80286 (also marketed as the IAPX 286 and often called INTEL 286) is a 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced on 1 February 1982. It was the first 8086
8086
based CPU with separate, non-multiplexed address and data buses and also the first with memory management and wide protection abilities. The 80286 used approximately 134,000 transistors in its original nMOS (HMOS ) incarnation and, just like the contemporary 80186 , it could correctly execute most software written for the earlier Intel
Intel
8086
8086
and 8088
8088
processors. The 80286 was employed for the IBM
IBM
PC/AT , introduced in 1984, and then widely used in most PC/AT compatible computers until the early 1990s
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Easter Egg (virtual)
An EASTER EGG is an intentional inside joke , a hidden message , or a secret feature of an interactive work (often, a computer program , video game or DVD
DVD
menu screen). The name is used to evoke the idea of a traditional Easter egg hunt . The term was coined to describe a hidden message in the Atari
Atari
video game Adventure that led Atari
Atari
to encourage further hidden messages in later games, treating them as Easter eggs for players to find
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Turbo Button
On personal computers , the TURBO BUTTON is a button which provides two run states for the computer, normal (full) speed, or a reduced speed. The name is inspired by turbocharger , a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an engine's power and efficiency. CONTENTS * 1 Effect * 2 Software implementations * 3 Turbo button
Turbo button
on keyboard * 4 References EFFECTThe turbo button was added to many computers using CPUs faster than the original 4.77 MHz Intel 8088
Intel 8088
used in the IBM Personal Computer
IBM Personal Computer
. Some software titles (games in particular) used the CPU's frequency for timing, so as faster chips came out, some of these games were unplayable. To provide a layer of compatibility for these titles, the "turbo" button was added. Disengaging turbo mode slows the system down to a state compatible with original 8086/ 8088
8088
chips
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