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QBasic
QBasic, a short form of Quick Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, is an integrated development environment and interpreter for a variety of BASIC
BASIC
programming languages which are based on QuickBASIC. Code entered into the IDE is compiled to an intermediate representation, and this IR is immediately interpreted on demand within the IDE.[1] It can run under nearly all versions of DOS and 32-bit versions of Windows, or through emulation via DOSBox/DOSEMU on Linux, FreeBSD, and 64-bit versions of Windows.[2] ( QBasic
QBasic
is a DOS program and requires DOS
DOS
or a DOS
DOS
emulator
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Turbo Button
On personal computers, the turbo button is a button which provides two run states for the computer: normal (full) speed or a reduced speed. The name is inspired by turbocharger, a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an engine's power and efficiency.Contents1 Effect 2 Software implementations 3 Turbo button
Turbo button
on keyboard 4 ReferencesEffect[edit] The turbo button was added to many computers using CPUs faster than the original 4.77 MHz Intel 8088
Intel 8088
used in the IBM Personal Computer. Some software titles (games in particular) used the CPU's frequency for timing, so as faster chips came out, some of these games were unplayable. To provide a layer of compatibility for these titles, the "turbo" button was added. Disengaging turbo mode slows the system down to a state compatible with original 8086/8088 chips
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Windows NT 4.0
Windows NT
Windows NT
4.0 is a preemptively multitasked[6] graphical operating system, designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers
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FreeBSD
FreeBSD
FreeBSD
is a free and open-source Unix-like
Unix-like
operating system descended from Research Unix
Research Unix
via the Berkeley Software Distribution
Berkeley Software Distribution
(BSD). Although for legal reasons FreeBSD
FreeBSD
cannot use the Unix
Unix
trademark, it is a direct descendant of BSD, which was historically also called "BSD Unix" or "Berkeley Unix"
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Debugger
A debugger or debugging tool is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs (the "target" program). The code to be examined might alternatively be running on an instruction set simulator (ISS), a technique that allows great power in its ability to halt when specific conditions are encountered, but which will typically be somewhat slower than executing the code directly on the appropriate (or the same) processor. Some debuggers offer two modes of operation, full or partial simulation, to limit this impact. A "trap" occurs when the program cannot normally continue because of a programming bug or invalid data. For example, the program might have tried to use an instruction not available on the current version of the CPU or attempted to access unavailable or protected memory
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Structured Programming
Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain. It emerged in the late 1950s with the appearance of the ALGOL 58 and ALGOL 60 programming languages,[1] with the latter including support for block structures. Contributing factors to its popularity and widespread acceptance, at first in academia and later among practitioners, include the discovery of what is now known as the structured program theorem in 1966,[2] and the publication of the influential "Go To Statement Considered Harmful" open letter in 1968 by Dutch computer scientist Edsger W
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Subroutines
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that perform a specific task, packaged as a unit. This unit can then be used in programs wherever that particular task should be performed. Subprograms may be defined within programs, or separately in libraries that can be used by multiple programs. In different programming languages, a subroutine may be called a procedure, a function, a routine, a method, or a subprogram. The generic term callable unit is sometimes used.[1] The name subprogram suggests a subroutine behaves in much the same way as a computer program that is used as one step in a larger program or another subprogram. A subroutine is often coded so that it can be started (called) several times and from several places during one execution of the program, including from other subroutines, and then branch back (return) to the next instruction after the call, once the subroutine's task is done
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While Loop
In most computer programming languages, a while loop is a control flow statement that allows code to be executed repeatedly based on a given Boolean condition. The while loop can be thought of as a repeating if statement.Contents1 Overview 2 Equivalent constructs 3 Demonstrating while loops3.1 ActionScript 3 3.2 Ada 3.3 Microsoft Small Basic 3.4 Visual Basic 3.5 Bourne (Unix) shell 3.6 Fortran 3.7 Java, C#, D 3.8 JavaScript 3.9 Lua 3.10 MATLAB 3.11 Mathematica 3.12 Oberon, Oberon-2 (programming language), Oberon-07, or Component Pascal 3.13 Maya Embedded Language 3.14 Pascal 3.15 Perl 3.16 PHP 3.17 PL/I 3.18 Python 3.19 Racket 3.20 Ruby 3.21 Smalltalk 3.22 Swift 3.23 Tcl 3.24 VEX 3.25 Windows PowerShell 3.26 While programming language4 See also 5 ReferencesOverview[edit] The while construct consists of a block of code and a condition/expression.[1] The condition/expression is evaluated, and if the condition/expression is true,[1] the code within the block is executed
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Line Number
In computing, a line number is a method used to specify a particular sequence of characters in a text file. The most common method of assigning numbers to lines is to assign every line a unique number, starting at 1 for the first line, and incrementing by 1 for each successive line. In the C programming language the line number of a source code line is one greater than the number of new-line characters read or introduced up to that point.[1] Line numbers were a required element of syntax in some older programming languages such as GW-BASIC.[2] The primary reason for this is that most operating systems at the time lacked interactive text editors; since the programmer's interface was usually limited to a line editor, line numbers provided a mechanism by which specific lines in the source code could be referenced for editing, and by which the programmer could insert a new line at a specific point
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Line Label
A label in a programming language is a sequence of characters that identifies a location within source code. In most languages labels take the form of an identifier, often followed by a punctuation character (e.g., a colon). In many high level programming languages the purpose of a label is to act as the destination of a GOTO statement.[1][2] In assembly language labels can be used anywhere an address can (for example, as the operand of a JMP or MOV instruction).[3] Also in Pascal and its derived variations. Some languages, such as Fortran
Fortran
and BASIC, support numeric labels.[4] Labels are also used to identify an entry point into a compiled sequence of statements (e.g., during debugging).Contents1 C1.1 Function labels 1.2 Switch labels2 Examples2.1 Javascript3 See also 4 ReferencesC[edit] In C a label identifies a statement in the code. A single statement can have multiple labels
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Record (computer Science)
In computer science, a record (also called a structure, struct, or compound data) is a basic data structure. Records in a database or spreadsheet are usually called "rows".[1] A record is a collection of fields, possibly of different data types, typically in fixed number and sequence [2][page needed]. The fields of a record may also be called members, particularly in object-oriented programming; fields may also be called elements, though these risk confusion with the elements of a collection. For example, a date could be stored as a record containing a numeric year field, a month field represented as a string, and a numeric day-of-month field. A personnel record might contain a name, a salary, and a rank
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Windows NT 3.1
Windows NT
Windows NT
3.1 is a 32-bit
32-bit
operating system developed by Microsoft, and released on July 27, 1993. It was the first published edition of the Windows NT
Windows NT
series of operating systems. At the time of Windows
Windows
NT's release, Microsoft's Windows 3.1
Windows 3.1
desktop environment had established brand recognition and market share; but Windows 3.1
Windows 3.1
relied on the DOS
DOS
operating system for essential functions, and it had a constrictive 16-bit architecture
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IBM
IBM
IBM
(International Business
Business
Machines Corporation) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries. The company originated in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
(CTR) and was renamed "International Business
Business
Machines" in 1924. IBM
IBM
manufactures and markets computer hardware, middleware and software, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM
IBM
is also a major research organization, holding the record for most U.S
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DOSEMU
DOSEMU, stylized as dosemu, is a compatibility layer software package that enables DOS operating systems (e.g., MS-DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS) and application software to run atop Linux on x86-based PCs (IBM PC compatible computers).Contents1 Features 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksFeatures[edit] It uses a combination of hardware-assisted virtualization features and high-level emulation. It can thus achieve nearly native speed for 8086-compatible DOS operating systems and applications on x86 compatible processors, and for DOS Protected Mode Interface (DPMI) applications on x86 compatible processors as well as on x86-64 processors. DOSEMU includes an 8086 processor emulator for use with real-mode applications in x86-64 long mode. Currently it is only available for x86 and x86-64 Linux systems (Linux 3.15 x86-64 systems cannot enter DPMI by default
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Windows 2000
Windows 2000
Windows 2000
is an operating system for use on both client and server computers. It was produced by Microsoft
Microsoft
and released to manufacturing on December 15, 1999,[2] and launched to retail on February 17, 2000.[3] It is the successor to Windows NT
Windows NT
4.0, and is the last version of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows to display the "Windows NT" designation. It is succeeded by Windows XP
Windows XP
(released in October 2001) and Windows Server 2003 (released in April 2003)
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MS-DOS Editor
MS-DOS Editor, commonly just called edit, is a character-based text editor that comes with MS-DOS (since version 5) and 32-bit versions of Microsoft Windows. It superseded edlin, the standard editor in earlier versions. Until MS-DOS 6.22 it was actually QBasic running in editor mode, but from DOS 7 (Windows 95) QBasic was removed and MS-DOS Editor became a standalone program. Editor is sometimes used as a substitute for Notepad on Windows 9x, where Notepad is limited to small files only. Editor can edit files that are up to 65,279 lines and up to approximately 5 MB in size. MS-DOS versions are limited to approximately 300 kB, depending on how much conventional memory is free.[1] Editor can be launched by typing it into the Run command dialog on Windows, and by typing edit into the command-line interface. Edit is still included in later versions of Windows such as Windows XP, Windows Vista 32 bit, Windows 7 32 bit, and Windows 8 32 bit
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