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Python (programming Language)
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming. Created by Guido van Rossum
Guido van Rossum
and first released in 1991, Python has a design philosophy that emphasizes code readability, notably using significant whitespace. It provides constructs that enable clear programming on both small and large scales.[26] Python features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative, functional and procedural, and has a large and comprehensive standard library.[27] Python interpreters are available for many operating systems. CPython, the reference implementation of Python, is open source software[28] and has a community-based development model, as do nearly all of its variant implementations
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Software Release Life Cycle
A software release life cycle is the sum of the stages of development and maturity for a piece of computer software: ranging from its initial development to its eventual release, and including updated versions of the released version to help improve software or fix software bugs still present in the software.Contents1 History 2 Stages of development2.1 Pre-alpha 2.2 Alpha 2.3 Beta2.3.1 Open and closed beta2.4 Release candidate3 Release3.1 Release to manufacturing (RTM) 3.2 General availability (GA) 3.3 Release to web (RTW)4 Support4.1 End-of-life5 See also 6 References 7 BibliographyHistory[edit] Usage of the "alpha/beta" test terminology originated at IBM. As long ago as the 1950s (and probably earlier), IBM used similar terminology for their hardware development. "A" test was the verification of a new product before public announcement. "B" test was the verification before releasing the product to be manufactured
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Programming Language Implementation
A programming language implementation is a system for executing computer programs. There are two general approaches to programming language implementation:Interpretation: An interpreter takes as input a program in some language, and performs the actions written in that language on some machine. Compilation: A compiler takes as input a program in some language, and translates that program into some other language, which may serve as input to another interpreter or another compiler.Notice that a compiler does not directly execute the program. Ultimately, in order to execute a program via compilation, it must be translated into a form that can serve as input to an interpreter or directly to hardware. When a piece of computer hardware can interpret a programming language directly, that language is called machine code. A so-called native code compiler is one that compiles a program into machine code
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Software License
A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, in source code as also object code form.[2] The only exception is software in the public domain. A typical software license grants the licensee, typically an end-user, permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law.Contents1 Software
Software
licenses and copyright law1.1 Ownership vs
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Procedural Programming
Procedural programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call. Procedures, also known as routines, subroutines, or functions (not to be confused with mathematical functions, but similar to those used in functional programming), simply contain a series of computational steps to be carried out. Any given procedure might be called at any point during a program's execution, including by other procedures or itself. The first major procedural programming languages first appeared circa 1960, including Fortran, ALGOL, COBOL
COBOL
and BASIC.[1] Pascal and C were published closer to the 1970s, while Ada was released in 1980.[1] Go is an example of a more modern procedural language, first published in 2009. Computer processors provide hardware support for procedural programming through a stack register and instructions for calling procedures and returning from them
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Software Design
Software
Software
design is the process by which an agent creates a specification of a software artifact, intended to accomplish goals, using a set of primitive components and subject to constraints.[1] Software
Software
design may refer to either "all the activity involved in conceptualizing, framing, implementing, commissioning, and ultimately modifying complex systems" or "the activity following requirements specification and before programming, as ... [in] a stylized software engineering process."[2] Software
Software
design usually involves problem solving and planning a software solution
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Software Developer
A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming, and testing of computer software. Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer, software analyst, and software engineer. According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development, and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, being that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become software architects or systems architects, those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system.[1] In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above
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Icon (programming Language)
Icon is a very high-level programming language featuring goal-directed execution and many facilities for managing strings and textual patterns. It is related to SNOBOL and SL5, string processing languages. Icon is not object-oriented, but an object-oriented extension called Idol was developed in 1996 which eventually became Unicon.Contents1 Basic syntax 2 Goal-directed execution 3 Generators 4 Strings 5 Other structures 6 String scanning 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksBasic syntax[edit] The Icon language is derived from the ALGOL-class of structured programming languages, and thus has syntax similar to C or Pascal. Icon is most similar to Pascal, using := syntax for assignments, the procedure keyword and similar syntax
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Strong Typing
In computer programming, programming languages are often colloquially classified as to whether the language's type system makes it strongly typed or weakly typed (loosely typed). Generally, a strongly typed language has stricter typing rules at compile time, which imply that errors and exceptions are more likely to happen during compilation. Most of these rules affect variable assignment, return values and function calling
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Duck Typing
In computer programming, duck typing is an application of the duck test in type safety. It requires that type checking be deferred to runtime, and is implemented by means of dynamic typing or reflection.[citation needed] Duck typing is concerned with establishing the suitability of an object for some purpose, using the principle, "If it walks like a duck and it quacks like a duck, then it must be a duck." With normal typing, suitability is assumed to be determined by an object's type only
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Go (programming Language)
Go (often referred to as golang) is a programming language created at Google[12] in 2009 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.[10] It is a compiled, statically typed language in the tradition of Algol and C, with garbage collection, limited structural typing,[3] memory safety features and CSP-style concurrent programming features added.[13] The compiler and other language tools originally developed by Google
Google
are all free and open source.[14]Contents1 History 2 Language design2.1 Syntax 2.2 Types2.2.1 Interface system2.3 Package system 2.4 Concurrency: goroutines and channels2.4.
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Falcon (programming Language)
Falcon is an open source, multi-paradigm programming language. Design and implementation is led by Giancarlo Niccolai,[3][4] a native of Bologna, Italy
Bologna, Italy
and Information Technology
Information Technology
graduate from Pistoia. Falcon translates computer source code to virtual machine instructions for evaluation. The virtual machine[5] is intended to be both a stand-alone interpreter as well as for integration in third-party embedding applications. A core design consideration for the Falcon programming language is to provide acceptably high performing scripting plug-ins to multi threaded data acquisition, reporting and dispersion applications. As programming languages go, Falcon design leans more towards conciseness of code and expressiveness than general readability
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Dylan (programming Language)
Dylan /ˈdɪlən/ is a multi-paradigm programming language that includes support for functional and object-oriented programming, and is dynamic and reflective while providing a programming model designed to support efficient machine code generation, including fine-grained control over dynamic and static behaviors. It was created in the early 1990s by a group led by Apple Computer. A concise and thorough overview of the language may be found in the Dylan Reference Manual.[1] Dylan derives from Scheme and Common Lisp and adds an integrated object system derived from the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS). In Dylan, all values (including numbers, characters, functions, and classes) are first-class objects. Dylan supports multiple inheritance, polymorphism, multiple dispatch, keyword arguments, object introspection, pattern-based syntax extension macros, and many other advanced features
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Reflective Programming
In computer science, reflection is the ability of a computer program to examine, introspect, and modify its own structure and behavior at runtime.[1]Contents1 Historical background 2 Uses 3 Implementation 4 Examples4.1 C# 4.2 Delphi 4.3 eC 4.4 ECMAScript 4.5 Go 4.6 Java 4.7 Objective-C 4.8 Perl 4.9 PHP 4.10 Python 4.11 R 4.12 Ruby5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistorical background[edit] The earliest computers were programmed in their native assembly language, which were inherently reflective, as these original architectures could be programmed by defining instructions as data and using self-modifying code
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Imperative Programming
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state. In much the same way that the imperative mood in natural languages expresses commands, an imperative program consists of commands for the computer to perform. Imperative programming focuses on describing how a program operates. The term is often used in contrast to declarative programming, which focuses on what the program should accomplish without specifying how the program should achieve the result.Contents1 Imperative and procedural programming 2 Rationale and foundations of imperative programming 3 History of imperative and object-oriented languages 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesImperative and procedural programming[edit] Procedural programming is a type of imperative programming in which the program is built from one or more procedures (also termed subroutines or functions)
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C++
C is the third letter in the English alphabet
English alphabet
and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin
Latin
alphabet. It is also the third letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is named cee (pronounced /siː/) in English.[1]Contents1 History 2 Later use 3 Use in writing systems3.1 English 3.2 Other languages 3.3 Other systems 3.4 Digraphs4 Related characters4.1 Ancestors, descendants and siblings 4.2 Derived ligatures, abbreviations, signs and symbols5 Computing codes 6 Other representations 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistoryPhoenician gaml Arabic ǧīm Hebrew gimel Greek Gamma Etruscan  C Old Latin C (G)"C" comes from the same letter as "G". The Semites named it gimel. The sign is possibly adapted from an Egyptian hieroglyph for a staff sling, which may have been the meaning of the name gimel
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