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Pyrrho
PYRRHO (/ˈpɪroʊ/ ; Greek : Πύρρων Pyrrōn, c. 360 BC – c. 270 BC), was a Greek philosopher of Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
and is credited as being the first Greek skeptic philosopher. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Philosophy * 3 Indian influences on Pyrrho
Pyrrho
* 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links LIFE Pyrrho
Pyrrho
was from Elis
Elis
, on the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
. Diogenes Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius
, quoting from Apollodorus of Athens , says that Pyrrho
Pyrrho
was at first a painter, and that pictures by him were exhibited in the gymnasium at Elis
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Apollodorus Of Athens
APOLLODORUS OF ATHENS (Greek : Ἀπολλόδωρος ὁ Ἀθηναῖος Apollodōros ho Athēnaios; c. 180 BC – after 120 BC) son of Asclepiades , was a Greek scholar, historian and grammarian. He was a pupil of Diogenes of Babylon
Diogenes of Babylon
, Panaetius
Panaetius
the Stoic , and the grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace . He left (perhaps fled) Alexandria
Alexandria
around 146 BC, most likely for Pergamon
Pergamon
, and eventually settled in Athens
Athens
. LITERARY WORKS * Chronicle (Χρονικά), a Greek history in verse from the fall of Troy
Troy
in the 12th century BC to roughly 143 BC (although later it was extended as far as 109 BC), and based on previous works by Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
of Cyrene . Its dates are reckoned by its references to the archons of Athens
Athens

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Alexander The Great
ALEXANDER III OF MACEDON (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as ALEXANDER THE GREAT (Greek : Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, _Aléxandros ho Mégas_ Koine Greek: ), was a king (_basileus _) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty . He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world by the age of thirty, stretching from Greece to northwestern India . He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16
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Classical Antiquity
CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY (also the CLASSICAL ERA, CLASSICAL PERIOD or CLASSICAL AGE) is a term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea , comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome , collectively known as the Greco-Roman world . It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe , North Africa and Southwestern Asia . Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer (8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD). It ends with the dissolution of classical culture at the close of Late Antiquity (300–600), blending into the Early Middle Ages (600–1000)
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Philosopher
A PHILOSOPHER is someone who practices philosophy , which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside of either theology or science . The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλόσοφος (_philosophos_) meaning "lover of wisdom". The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras (6th century BC). In the classical sense, a philosopher was someone who lived according to a certain way of life, focusing on resolving existential questions about the human condition , and not someone who discourses upon theories or comments upon authors. Typically, these particular brands of philosophy are Hellenistic ones and those who most arduously commit themselves to this lifestyle may be considered philosophers. In a modern sense, a philosopher is an intellectual who has contributed in one or more branches of philosophy, such as aesthetics , ethics , epistemology , logic , metaphysics , social theory , and political philosophy
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (_Bhārat Gaṇarājya_), is a country in South Asia . It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China , Nepal , and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives . India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia . The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE
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Magi
MAGI (/ˈmeɪdʒaɪ/ ; singular MAGUS /ˈmeɪɡəs/ ; from Latin _magus_) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster . The earliest known use of the word Magi is in the trilingual inscription written by Darius the Great , known as the Behistun Inscription . Old Persian texts, pre-dating the Hellenistic period, refer to a Magus as a Zurvanic , and presumably Zoroastrian, priest. Pervasive throughout the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia until late antiquity and beyond, _mágos_, "Magian" or "magician", was influenced by (and eventually displaced) Greek _goēs _ (γόης), the older word for a practitioner of magic, to include astrology, alchemy and other forms of esoteric knowledge
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Onesicritus
ONESICRITUS (Greek : Ὀνησίκριτος; c. 360 BC – c. 290 BC), a Greek historical writer, who accompanied Alexander on his campaigns in Asia. He claimed to have been the commander of Alexander's fleet but was actually only a helmsman; Arrian
Arrian
and Nearchus
Nearchus
often criticize him for this. When he returned home, he wrote a history of Alexander's campaigns. He is frequently cited by later authors, who also criticize him for his inaccuracies. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Writings * 3 Notes * 4 References LIFEHe was a native of Astypalaia , and it was probably to this island origin that he owed the nautical skills which would prove so advantageous to him. He was a disciple of Diogenes of Sinope
Diogenes of Sinope
, the Cynic philosopher
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Nearchus
NEARCHUS (Greek : Νέαρχος, NEARCHOS; c. 360 – 300 BC) was one of the officers, a navarch , in the army of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
. He is known for his celebrated voyage from the Indus river
Indus river
to the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
following the Indian campaign of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
, in 326–324 BC. An account of his voyage is given in Arrian
Arrian
's Indica , written in the 2nd century AD. A native of Lato
Lato
in Crete
Crete
and son of Androtimus, his family settled at Amphipolis
Amphipolis
in Macedonia at some point during Philip II’s reign (we must assume after Philip took the city in 357 BC), at which point Nearchus
Nearchus
was probably a young boy
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Aristocles Of Messene
ARISTOCLES OF MESSENE (/əˈrɪstəˌkliːz/ ; Greek : Ἀριστοκλῆς ὁ Μεσσήνιος), in Sicily
Sicily
, was a Peripatetic philosopher, who probably lived in the 1st century AD. He may have been the teacher of Alexander of Aphrodisias
Alexander of Aphrodisias
. According to the Suda
Suda
and Eudokia , he wrote several works: * Πότερον σπουδαιότερος Ὅμηρος ἢ Πλάτων - Whether Homer or Plato is more Worthy. * Τέχναι ῥητορικαί - Arts of Rhetoric. * A work on the god Serapis. * A work on Ethics, in nine books. * A work on Philosophy, in ten books.The last of these works appears to have been a history of philosophy, in which he wrote about the philosophers, their schools, and doctrines. Several fragments of it are preserved in Eusebius
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Eusebius
EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA (/juːˈsiːbiəs/ ; Greek : Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, _Eusébios tés Kaisareías_; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as EUSEBIUS PAMPHILI, was a Greek historian of Christianity, exegete , and Christian polemicist . He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus , he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely well learned Christian of his time. He wrote _Demonstrations of the Gospel_, _Preparations for the Gospel_, and _On Discrepancies between the Gospels_, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History " he produced the _Ecclesiastical History _, _On the Life of Pamphilus_, the _Chronicle_ and _On the Martyrs_
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Achaemenid Empire
The ACHAEMENID EMPIRE (/əˈkiːmənɪd/ ; c. 550–330 BC), also called the FIRST PERSIAN EMPIRE, was an empire based in Western Asia , founded by Cyrus the Great . Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was one of the largest empires in history , spanning 5.5 million square kilometers, and was larger than any previous empire in history . It is equally notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings ), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system , the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires
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Crates Of Athens
CRATES OF ATHENS (Greek : Κράτης ὁ Ἀθηναῖος; died 268–264 BC ) was the son of Antigenes of the Thriasian deme , the pupil and eromenos of Polemo , and his successor as scholarch of the Platonic Academy , in 270/69 BC. The intimate friendship of Crates and Polemo was celebrated in antiquity, and Diogenes Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius
has preserved an epigram of the poet Antagoras , according to which the two friends were united after death in one tomb
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Ionian Sea
The IONIAN SEA (Greek : Ιόνιο Πέλαγος, Greek pronunciation: , Italian : _Mar Ionio_, Italian pronunciation: , Albanian : _Deti Jon_, Albanian pronunciation: ) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea
Sea
, south of the Adriatic Sea
Sea
. It is bounded by southern Italy
Italy
including Calabria
Calabria
, Sicily
Sicily
, and the Salento
Salento
peninsula to the west, southern Albania
Albania
to the north, and the west coast of Greece
Greece
. All major islands in the sea belong to Greece
Greece

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