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Puranic Chronology
The Puranic chronology
Puranic chronology
gives a timeline of Hindu
Hindu
history according to the Hindu
Hindu
scriptures
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Manusmṛti
DivisionsSamhita Brahmana Aranyaka UpanishadsUpanishads Rig vedicAitareya KaushitakiSama vedicChandogya KenaYajur vedicBrihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara MaitriAtharva vedicMundaka Mandukya PrashnaOther scripturesBhagavad Gita AgamasRelated Hindu textsVedangasShiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa JyotishaPuranas Brahma
Brahma
puranasBrahma Brahmānda Brahmavaivarta Markandeya BhavishyaVaishnava puranasVishnu Bhagavata Naradiya Garuda Padma Vamana Kurma MatsyaShaiv
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Ashoka
Ashoka
Ashoka
(English: /əˈʃoʊkə/; IAST: Aśoka; died 232 BCE)[5], or Ashoka
Ashoka
the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
from c. 268 to 232 BCE.[6] He was the grandson of the founder of the Maurya Dynasty, Chandragupta Maurya, who had created one of the largest empires in ancient India
India
and then, according to Jain sources, renounced it all to become a Jain monk.[7] One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka expanded Chandragupta's empire, and reigned over a realm that stretched from present-day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the west to Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in the east. It covered the entire Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
except for parts of present-day Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
Karnataka
and Kerala
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Kali Yuga
Kali
Kali
Yuga
Yuga
(Devanāgarī: कलियुग [kəli juɡə], lit. "age of Kali", or "age of vice") is the last of the four stages (or ages or yugas) the world goes through as part of a 'cycle of yugas' (i.e. Mahayuga) described in the Sanskrit scriptures.[1] The other ages are called Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, and Dvapara Yuga. Kali
Kali
Yuga
Yuga
is associated with the demon Kali
Kali
(not to be confused with the goddess Kālī)
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Maurya Dynasty
The Maurya
Maurya
Empire
Empire
was a geographically extensive Iron Age
Iron Age
historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 187 BCE
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Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
(reign: 321–298 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
in ancient India.[2][8] He was born in a humble family, orphaned and abandone
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Bindusara
Bindusara
Bindusara
(r. c. 297 – c. 273 BCE) was the second Mauryan emperor of India. He was the son of the dynasty's founder Chandragupta, and the father of its most famous ruler Ashoka. Bindusara's life is not documented as well as the lives of these two emperors: much of the information about him comes from legendary accounts written several hundred years after his death. Bindusara
Bindusara
consolidated the empire created by his father
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Satavahana Dynasty
The Satavahanas (IAST: Sātavāhana), also referred to as the Andhras in the Puranas, were an ancient Indian dynasty based in the Deccan region. Most modern scholars believe that the Satavahana
Satavahana
rule began in the first century BCE and lasted until the second century CE, although some assign the beginning of their rule to as early as the 3rd century BCE. The Satavahana
Satavahana
kingdom mainly comprised the present-day Telangana, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Maharashtra. At different times, their rule extended to parts of modern Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Karnataka. The dynasty had different capital cities at different times, including Pratishthana
Pratishthana
(Paithan) and Amaravati (Dharanikota). The origin of the dynasty is uncertain, but according to the Puranas, their first king overthrew the Kanva dynasty
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Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire
Empire
was an ancient Indian empire, which existed at its zenith from approximately 240 to 605 CE and covered much of the Indian subcontinent.[1] This period is called the Golden Age
Golden Age
of India.[2][note 1] The ruling dynasty of the empire was founded by Sri Gupta; the most notable rulers of the dynasty were Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, and Chandragupta II. The 5th-century CE Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poet Kalidasa
Kalidasa
credits the Guptas with having conquered about twenty-one kingdoms, both in and outside India, including the kingdoms of Parasikas, the Hunas, the Kambojas, tribes located in the west and east Oxus
Oxus
valleys, the Kinnaras, Kiratas, and others.[4][non-primary source needed] The high points of this period are the great cultural developments which took place during the reign of Chandragupta II
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Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
was a king of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
around 319 CE. As the ruler of the Gupta Empire, he is known for forging alliances with many powerful families in the Ganges
Ganges
region. Description[edit] Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
was the son of Ghatotkacha and the grandson of Sri Gupta. Unlike his predecessors, who were known as Maharaja (king), he came to be known as Maharajadhiraja (king of kings). He came to power in 319 CE as his father Ghatotkacha died leaving him on the throne.[citation needed] However, it remains unknown how he expanded a "small principality to the status of an important kingdom" by annexing neighbouring kingdoms. He also married a Licchhavi princess, Kumaradevi, indicating that the matrimonial connections between the two led to the "political greatness" of the Gupta dynasty.[1] The exact boundaries of his empire remains unknown
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Alexander The Great
Alexander
Alexander
III of Macedon
Macedon
(20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander
Alexander
the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, translit. Aléxandros ho Mégas, Koine
Koine
Greek: [a.lék.san.dros ho mé.gas]), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon[a] and a member of the Argead
Argead
dynasty. He was born in Pella
Pella
in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty
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Vikramāditya
Vikramaditya
Vikramaditya
(IAST: Vikramāditya) was a legendary emperor of ancient India. Often characterized as an ideal king, he is known for his generosity, courage, and patronage of scholars. Vikramaditya
Vikramaditya
is featured in hundreds of traditional Indian legends, including those in Baital Pachisi
Baital Pachisi
and Singhasan Battisi. Many describe him as a universal ruler, with his capital at Ujjain
Ujjain
( Pataliputra
Pataliputra
or Pratishthana
Pratishthana
in a few stories). According to popular tradition, Vikramaditya
Vikramaditya
began the Vikrama Samvat era in 57 BCE after defeating the Shakas, and those who believe that he is based on a historical figure place him around the first century BCE. However, this era is identified as "Vikrama Samvat" after the ninth century CE
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Shishunaga Dynasty
The Shishunaga dynasty is believed to have been the second ruling dynasty of Magadha, an empire of ancient India. According to the Puranas, this dynasty was the second ruling dynasty of Magadha, succeeding the legendary dynasty founded by Brihadratha.[2] Shishunaga, the founder of the dynasty, was initially an amatya or "minister" of the last Haryanka dynasty
Haryanka dynasty
ruler Nāgadāsaka and ascended to the throne after a popular rebellion in c. 413 BCE.[3] The capital of this dynasty initially was Rajgir; but later shifted to Pataliputra, near the present day Patna, during the reign of Kakavarna. According to tradition, Kakavarna was succeeded by his ten sons.[4] This dynasty was succeeded by the Nanda Empire
Nanda Empire
in c
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Vikram Samvat
Vikram Samvat
Vikram Samvat
(Hindi: विक्रम सम्वत्, Nepali: विक्रम सम्वत्) (abbreviated as V.S. (or VS) or B.S. (or BS));  Listen (help·info)) is the historical Hindu calendar mainly in Nepal
Nepal
and India. It uses lunar months and solar sidereal year (see: Vedic time keeping).[citation needed] It is used as the official calendar in Nepal.[citation needed] The Vikram Samvat
Vikram Samvat
has two alternative systems. It started in 56 BCE in southern (purnimanta) and 57–56 BCE in northern (amanta) systems of Hindu calendar. The Shukla Paksha in both systems coincides, most festivals occur in the Shukla Paksha. The era is named after King Vikramaditya
Vikramaditya
of India.[1][2] The lunisolar Vikram Samvat
Vikram Samvat
calendar is 56.7 years ahead (in count) of the solar Gregorian calendar
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Frame Story
A frame story (also known as a frame tale or frame narrative) is a literary technique that sometimes serves as a companion piece to a story within a story, whereby an introductory or main narrative is presented, at least in part, for the purpose of setting the stage either for a more emphasized second narrative or for a set of shorter stories. The frame story leads readers from a first story into another, smaller one (or several ones) within it. The frame story may also be used to allow readers to understand a part of the story, then jump to another part that can now be understood. This is not however, to be mixed up with a narrative structure or character personality change.Contents1 Origins 2 A set of stories 3 Single story 4 Use 5 Compared to reprise 6 See also 7 NotesOrigins[edit] The earliest known frame stories are those preserved on the ancient Egyptian Papyrus Westcar
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Vedic India
The Vedic period
Vedic period
or Vedic age (c. 1500 – c. 600 BCE) is the period in the history of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
intervening between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilization, and a second urbanisation which began in c. 600 BCE. It gets its name from the Vedas, which are liturgical texts containing details of life during this period that have been interpreted to be historical[1] and constitute the primary sources for understanding the period. The Vedas
Vedas
were composed and orally transmitted by speakers of an Old Indo-Aryan language who had migrated into the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
early in this period. The associated Vedic culture was tribal and pastoral until c. 1200 or 1100 BCE, and centred in the Punjab
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