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Puquina Language
Puquina (or Pukina) is an extinct language once spoken by a native ethnic group in the region surrounding Lake Titicaca
Lake Titicaca
( Peru
Peru
and Bolivia) and in the north of Chile. It is often associated with the culture that built Tiwanaku. Remnants of Puquina can be found in the Quechuan and Spanish languages spoken in the south of Peru, mainly in Arequipa, Moquegua
Moquegua
and Tacna, as well as in Bolivia. There also seem to be remnants in the Kallawaya language, which may be a mixed language formed from Quechuan languages and Puquina
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Lake Titicaca
Lake
Lake
Titicaca (Spanish: Lago Titicaca, Quechua: Titiqaqa Qucha) is a large, deep lake in the Andes
Andes
on the border of Bolivia
Bolivia
and Peru. By volume of water and by surface area, it is the largest lake in South America.[2][3][4] Lake
Lake
Maracaibo has a larger surface area, but it is a tidal bay, not a lake. It is often called the "highest navigable lake" in the world, with a surface elevation of 3,812 metres (12,507 ft).[5][6] Although this refers to navigation by large boats, it is generally considered to mean commercial craft. For many years the largest vessel afloat on the lake was the 2,200-ton, 79-metre (259 ft) SS Ollanta
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Arawakan Languages
Arawakan (Arahuacan, Maipuran Arawakan, "mainstream" Arawakan, Arawakan proper), also known as Maipurean (also Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúre), is a language family that developed among ancient indigenous peoples in South America. Branches migrated to Central America and the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean
Caribbean
and the Atlantic, including what is now the Bahamas. Only present-day Ecuador, Uruguay, and Chile
Chile
did not have peoples who spoke Arawakan languages. Maipurean may be related to other language families in a hypothetical Macro-Arawakan
Macro-Arawakan
stock. The name Maipure was given to the family by Filippo S. Gilij in 1782, after the Maipure language of Venezuela, which he used as a basis of his comparisons. It was renamed after the culturally more important Arawak language a century later
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Tupian Languages
The Tupi or Tupian language family comprises some 70 languages spoken in South America, of which the best known are Tupi proper and Guarani.Contents1 Homeland and urheimat 2 History, members and classification 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksHomeland and urheimat[edit] Rodrigues (2007) considers the Proto-Tupian urheimat to be somewhere between the Guaporé and Aripuanã
Aripuanã
rivers, in the Madeira River basin.[2] Much of this area corresponds to the modern-day state of Rondônia, Brazil. 5 of the 10 Tupian branches are found in this area, as well as some Tupi–Guarani languages
Tupi–Guarani languages
(especially Kawahíb), making it the probable urheimat of these languages and maybe of its speaking peoples
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International Congress Of Americanists
The International Congress of Americanists (ICA) is an international academic conference for research in multidisciplinary studies of the Americas
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Extinct Language
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers,[1] especially if it has no living descendants. In contrast, a dead language is "one that is no longer the native language of any community", even if it is still in use, like Latin.[2] In the modern period, language death has typically resulted from the process of cultural assimilation leading to language shift, and the gradual abandonment of a native language in favour of a foreign lingua franca. A language that currently has living native speakers is called a modern language. As of the 2000s, a total of roughly 7,000 natively spoken languages existed worldwide
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Eastern Bolivian Guaraní
The Eastern Bolivian Guaraní, or Ava Guaraní, are an Indigenous people formerly known as Chiriguanos or Chiriguano Indians. Noted for their warlike character, the Chiriguanos retained their lands in the Andes foothills of southeastern Bolivia
Bolivia
from the 16th to the 19th centuries by fending off, first, the Inca Empire, later, the Spanish Empire, and, still later, independent Bolivia. The Chiriguanos were finally subjugated in 1892. The Chiriguanos of history nearly disappeared from public consciousness after their 1892 defeat -- but were reborn beginning in the 1970s
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Terrence Kaufman
Terrence Kaufman (born 1937) is an American linguist specializing in documentation of unwritten languages, lexicography, Mesoamerican historical linguistics and language contact phenomena. He is emeritus professor of the department of anthropology at the University of Pittsburgh.Contents1 Academic career 2 Selected bibliography2.1 Articles 2.2 Books3 ReferencesAcademic career[edit] Kaufman received his PhD in Linguistics
Linguistics
from the University of California at Berkeley in 1963. Kaufman has produced descriptive and comparative-historical studies of languages of the Mayan, Siouan, Hokan, Uto-Aztecan, Mixe–Zoquean
Mixe–Zoquean
and Oto-Manguean families. Probably because of his focus on gathering empirical documentation of unwritten languages through fieldwork and training of native linguists, Kaufman's list of publications is less extensive than those of other scholars in the field
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Ese Ejja Language
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Mixed Language
Although every language is mixed to some extent,[1] by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language[2][3] can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages. In other words, a "mixed language" is a language that belongs to more than one language family and it is unclear whether there are any mixed languages, i.e. it is unclear to what extent language mixture, can be distinguished from other mechanisms such as code-switching, substrata, or lexical borrowing. [4] In 1861, Max Müller
Max Müller
denied "the possibility of a mixed language"[5]. In 1881, William D
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Tacna
Tacna
Tacna
is a city in southern Peru
Peru
and the regional capital of the Tacna Region. A very commercially active city, it is located only 35 km (22 mi) north of the border with Arica y Parinacota Region
Arica y Parinacota Region
from Chile, inland from the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and in the valley of the Caplina River. It is Peru's tenth most populous city. Initially called San Pedro de Tacna, it has gained a reputation for patriotism, with many monuments and streets named after heroes of Peru's struggle for independence (1821–1824) and the War of the Pacific (1879–1883)
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Moquegua
Moquegua
Moquegua
(Spanish pronunciation: [moˈkeɣwa], founded by the Spanish colonists as Villa de Santa Catalina de Guadalcázar del Valle de Moquegua) is a city in southern Peru, located in the Moquegua Region, of which it is the capital. It is also capital of Mariscal Nieto Province and Moquegua
Moquegua
District. It is located 1144 kilometers south of the capital city of Lima.Contents1 History 2 Tourism 3 Economy 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]CathedralPlaza de Armas of Moquegua, designed by Gustave EiffelThis region was occupied for thousands of years by successive cultures of indigenous peoples. The Wari culture
Wari culture
built numerous monuments, and developed terraced fields to support crop cultivation on hillsides hundreds of years before the Inca
Inca
conquered them and expanded their territory into this area
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Arequipa
Arequipa
Arequipa
(Spanish pronunciation: [aɾeˈkipa]) is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region
Arequipa Region
and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru. It is Peru's second most populous city with 861,145 inhabitants, as well as its second most populous metropolitan area as of 2016, according to the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics (INEI) [2] Arequipa
Arequipa
is the second most industrialized[3] and commercialized city in Peru.[4] Its industrial activity includes manufactured goods and camelid wool products for export. The city has close trade ties with Chile, Bolivia
Bolivia
and Brazil. The city was founded on 15 August 1540, by Garcí Manuel de Carbajal as "Villa Hermosa de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción"
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Chile
Coordinates: 30°S 71°W / 30°S 71°W / -30; -71Republic of Chile República de Chile  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: Por la razón o la fuerza (Spanish) (English: "By Right or Might") [1]Anthem:  National Anthem of ChileLocation of  Chile  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Santiagoa 33°26′S 70°40′W / 33.433°S 70.667°W / -33.433; -70.667National language SpanishEthnic groups (2012[2])64% White 30% Mestizo 5% Mapuche 0.7% Aymara 0.1% Other 0.2% UnspecifiedDemonym ChileanGovernment Unitary presidential constitutional republic• PresidentSebastián Piñera• Senate PresidentCarlos Montes Cisternas• President of the Chamber of DeputiesMaya FernándezLegislature National Congress• Upper houseSenate
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Pano–Tacanan Languages
Pano- Tacanan
Tacanan
(also Pano-Takana, Pano-Takánan, Pano-Tacana, Páno-Takána) is a proposed family of languages spoken in Peru, western Brazil, Bolivia
Bolivia
and northern Paraguay. There are two close-knit branches, Panoan
Panoan
and Tacanan
Tacanan
(Adelaar & Muysken 2004; Kaufman 1990, 1994), with 33 languages. There are lexical and grammatical similarities between the two branches, but it has not yet been demonstrated that these are genetic (Loos 1999). Most Panoan languages
Panoan languages
are spoken in either Peru
Peru
or western Brazil; a few are in Bolivia. All Tacanan languages
Tacanan languages
are spoken in Bolivia (Ese’ejja is also spoken in Peru).Contents1 Genealogical relations 2 External links 3 Bibliography 4 CitationsGenealogical relations[edit]This section needs expansion
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Peru
Coordinates: 10°S 76°W / 10°S 76°W / -10; -76 Republic
Republic
of Peru República del Perú  (Spanish)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union"Anthem: "Himno Nacional del Perú"  (Spanish) "National Anthem of Peru"National SealGran Sello del Estado  (Spanish) Great Seal of the StateLocation of  Peru  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Lima 12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / 12.0433°S 77
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