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Punch (magazine)
Punch; or, The London
London
Charivari was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire established in 1841 by Henry Mayhew
Henry Mayhew
and engraver Ebenezer Landells. Historically, it was most influential in the 1840s and 1850s, when it helped to coin the term "cartoon" in its modern sense as a humorous illustration. After the 1940s, when its circulation peaked, it went into a long decline, closing in 1992. It was revived in 1996, but closed again in 2002.Contents1 History 2 Later years2.1 Punch table3 Gallery of selected early covers 4 Contributors4.1 Editors 4.2 Cartoonists 4.3 Authors5 Influence 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Works cited 9 External linksHistory[edit] Punch was founded on 17 July 1841 by Henry Mayhew
Henry Mayhew
and engraver Ebenezer Landells, on an initial investment of £25. It was jointly edited by Mayhew and Mark Lemon
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Devil
The Devil
Devil
(from Greek: διάβολος diábolos "slanderer, accuser")[1] is the personification and archetype of evil in various cultures.[2] Historically, the Devil
Devil
can be defined as the personification of thatever is perceived in society as evil and the depiction consist of its cultural traditions.[3] In Christianity, the manifestation of the Devil
Devil
is the Hebrew
Hebrew
Satan; the primary opponent of God.[4][5] While in Christiany, the Devil
Devil
was created by God, in Absolute dualism, the Devil
Devil
is alternatively seen as an independent principle besides the good God
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Queen Victoria
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom
Queen of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and King George III
King George III
died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power
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Royal Family
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an emperor or empress, and the term papal family describes the family of a pope, while the terms baronial family, comital family, ducal family, grand ducal family, or princely family are more appropriate to describe the relatives of a reigning baron, count, duke, grand duke, or prince. However, in common parlance members of any family which reigns by hereditary right are often referred to as royalty or "royals." It is also customary in some circles to refer to the extended relations of a deposed monarch and his or her descendants as a royal family. A dynasty is sometimes referred to as "the House of ..."
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Threepence (British Coin)
The British threepence (3d) coin, usually simply known as a threepence or threepenny bit, was a unit of currency equaling one eightieth of a pound sterling, or three old pence sterling. It was used in the United Kingdom, and earlier in Great Britain and England. Similar denominations were later used throughout the British Empire, notably in Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. The sum of three pence was pronounced variously /ˈθrʊpɛns/ THRUUP-ənss, /ˈθrɛpəns/ THREP-ənss or /ˈθrʌpəns/ THRUP-ənss, reflecting different pronunciations in the various regions and nations of the United Kingdom. Likewise, the coin was often referred to in conversation as a /ˈθrʊpni/ THRUUP-nee, /ˈθrɛpni/ THREP-nee or /ˈθrʌpni/ THRUP-nee bit. Before Decimal Day
Decimal Day
in 1971 there were two hundred and forty pence in one pound sterling. Twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound
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Elizabeth Barrett
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
(née Moulton-Barrett, /ˈbraʊnɪŋ/; 6 March 1806 – 29 June 1861) was an English poet of the Victorian era, popular in Britain and the United States during her lifetime. Born in County Durham, the eldest of 12 children, Elizabeth Barrett wrote poetry from about the age of six. Her mother's collection of her poems forms one of the largest extant collections of juvenilia by any English writer. At 15 she became ill, suffering intense head and spinal pain for the rest of her life. Later in life she also developed lung problems, possibly tuberculosis. She took laudanum for the pain from an early age, which is likely to have contributed to her frail health. In the 1830s Elizabeth was introduced to literary society through her cousin, John Kenyon. Her first adult collection of poems was published in 1838 and she wrote prolifically between 1841 and 1844, producing poetry, translation and prose
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Robert Browning
Robert Browning
Robert Browning
(7 May 1812 – 12 December 1889) was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of the dramatic monologue made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. His poems are known for their irony, characterization, dark humour, social commentary, historical settings, and challenging vocabulary and syntax. Browning's early career began promisingly, but was not a success
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Thomas Carlyle
Thomas Carlyle
Thomas Carlyle
(4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.[1] Considered one of the most important social commentators of his time, he presented many lectures during his lifetime with certain acclaim in the Victorian era. One of those conferences resulted in his famous work On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History where he explains that the key role in history lies in the actions of the "Great Man", claiming that "the history of the world is but the biography of great men".[2] A respected historian, his 1837 book The French Revolution: A History was the inspiration for Charles Dickens' 1859 novel A Tale of Two Cities, and remains popular today
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Edward FitzGerald (poet)
Edward FitzGerald (31 March 1809 – 14 June 1883) was an English poet and writer, best known as the poet of the first and most famous English translation of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. The writing of his name as both FitzGerald and Fitzgerald is seen. The use here of FitzGerald conforms with that of his own publications, anthologies such as Quiller-Couch's Oxford Book of English Verse, and most reference books up until about the 1960s.Contents1 Life 2 Early literary work 3 Personal life 4 Rubáiyát of Khayyám4.1 Parodies5 See also 6 Notes 7 Bibliography, biographies 8 Further reading 9 External linksLife[edit] Edward FitzGerald was born Edward Purcell at Bredfield House in Bredfield, around 2 miles north of Woodbridge, Suffolk, England, in 1809. In 1818, his father, John Purcell, assumed the name and arms of his wife's family, the FitzGeralds. This name change occurred shortly after FitzGerald's mother inherited her second fortune
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Charlotte Brontë
Charlotte Brontë
Charlotte Brontë
(/ˈbrɒnti/, commonly /-teɪ/;[1] 21 April 1816 – 31 March 1855) was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels have become classics of English literature
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Albert, Prince Consort
Prince Albert of Saxe- Coburg
Coburg
and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel;[1] 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, to a family connected to many of Europe's ruling monarchs. At the age of 20, he married his first cousin, Queen Victoria; they had nine children. Initially he felt constrained by his role of consort, which did not afford him power or responsibilities. He gradually developed a reputation for supporting public causes, such as educational reform and the abolition of slavery worldwide, and was entrusted with running the Queen's household, office and estates. He was heavily involved with the organisation of the Great Exhibition of 1851, which was a resounding success. Victoria came to depend more and more on his support and guidance
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The Times
The Times
The Times
is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times
(founded in 1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson
(May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States. Emerson gradually moved away from the religious and social beliefs of his contemporaries, formulating and expressing the philosophy of transcendentalism in his 1836 essay "Nature". Following this work, he gave a speech entitled "The American Scholar" in 1837, which Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. considered to be America's "intellectual Declaration of Independence".[3] Emerson wrote most of his important essays as lectures first and then revised them for print
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Emily Dickinson
Emily Elizabeth Dickinson (December 10, 1830 – May 15, 1886) was an American poet. Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massachusetts. Although part of a prominent family with strong ties to its community, Dickinson lived much of her life in reclusive isolation. After studying at the Amherst Academy for seven years in her youth, she briefly attended the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before returning to her family's house in Amherst. Considered an eccentric by locals, she developed a noted penchant for white clothing and became known for her reluctance to greet guests or, later in life, to even leave her bedroom. Dickinson never married, and most friendships between her and others depended entirely upon correspondence
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Herman Melville
Herman Melville[a] (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American Renaissance period. His best known works include Typee
Typee
(1846), a romantic account of his experiences in Polynesian life, and his whaling novel Moby-Dick
Moby-Dick
(1851). His work was almost forgotten during his last 30 years. His writing draws on his experience at sea as a common sailor, exploration of literature and philosophy, and engagement in the contradictions of American society in a period of rapid change. He developed a complex, baroque style; the vocabulary is rich and original, a strong sense of rhythm infuses the elaborate sentences, the imagery is often mystical or ironic, and the abundance of allusion extends to biblical scripture, myth, philosophy, literature, and the visual arts. Melville was born in New York City, the third child of a merchant in French dry goods and his wife
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Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
(February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline. He was also the first American to translate Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
and was one of the five Fireside Poets
Fireside Poets
from New England. Longfellow was born in Portland, Maine, which was then still part of Massachusetts. He studied at Bowdoin College
Bowdoin College
and, after spending time in Europe, he became a professor at Bowdoin and later at Harvard College. His first major poetry collections were Voices of the Night (1839) and Ballads and Other Poems (1841). Longfellow retired from teaching in 1854 to focus on his writing, and he lived the remainder of his life in a former Revolutionary War headquarters of George Washington in Cambridge, Massachusetts
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