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Pumped-storage Hydroelectricity
Pumped-storage hydroelectricity
Pumped-storage hydroelectricity
(PSH), or pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES), is a type of hydroelectric energy storage used by electric power systems for load balancing. The method stores energy in the form of gravitational potential energy of water, pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. Low-cost surplus off-peak electric power is typically used to run the pumps. During periods of high electrical demand, the stored water is released through turbines to produce electric power
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Hydroelectricity In Japan
Hydroelectricity is Japan's main renewable energy source, with an installed capacity of about 50 GW (including pumped storage)[1] and a production of 69.2 TWh of electricity in 2009,[2] making Japan one of the biggest hydroelectricity producers in the world. Most of Japanese hydroelectric power plants are pumped-storage plants. Conventional hydropower plants account for about 20 GW out of the total installed capacity as of 2007.[3] Conventional hydropower potential of Japan is considered to be almost fully developed, with little opportunity for further capacity increase.[4] In recent years, almost exclusively pumped storage plants were commissioned, significantly increasing the ratio of pumped storage capacity over conventional hydro.[4] The large capacity of pumped storage hydropower was built to store energy from nuclear power plants, which until the Fukushima disaster constituted a large part of Japan electricity generation
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United States Department Of Energy Global Energy Storage Database
The United States Department of Energy's Global Energy Storage Database (GESDB) is a free-access database of energy storage projects and policies funded by the U.S. DOE, Office of Electricity and Sandia National Labs.[1] In 2013 the database covered 409 projects; it aimed to cover all energy storage projects globally by 2014.[2] See also[edit]Sustainable development portal Energy portalList of energy storage projects Energy storage Hydroelectricity Hydropower United States Department of EnergyReferences[edit]^ Energystorageexchange.org ^ Siegel, RP (February 25, 2013). "The Pros and Cons of Energy Storage Systems". Triple Pundit. External links[edit]Find more aboutEnergy storageat's sister projectsDefinitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from WikiversityU.S. Dept of Energy - Energy Storage Systems U.S
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Frequency
Frequency
Frequency
is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.[1] It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency.[2] For example, if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats)
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Wales
Wales
Wales
(/ˈweɪlz/ ( listen); Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəmri] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the island of Great Britain.[8] It is bordered by England
England
to the east, the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon
Snowdon
(Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit
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Photovoltaic
Photovoltaics
Photovoltaics
(PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry. A typical photovoltaic system employs solar panels, each comprising a number of solar cells, which generate electrical power
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Tennessee Valley Authority
The Tennessee Valley
Tennessee Valley
Authority (TVA) is a federally owned corporation in the United States
United States
created by congressional charter on May 18, 1933, to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development to the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression. The enterprise was a result of the efforts of Senator George W. Norris
George W. Norris
of Nebraska. TVA was envisioned not only as a provider, but also as a regional economic development agency that would use federal experts and electricity to more quickly modernize the region's economy and society. TVA's service area covers most of Tennessee, portions of Alabama, Mississippi, and Kentucky, and small slices of Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia. It was the first large regional planning agency of the federal government and remains the largest
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Economies Of Scale
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale. Economies of scale
Economies of scale
apply to a variety of organizational and business situations and at various levels, such as a business or manufacturing unit, plant or an entire enterprise. When average costs start falling as output increases, then economies of scale are occurring
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Fossil Fuel Power Plant
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity. Central station fossil fuel power plants are designed on a large scale for continuous operation. In many countries, such plants provide most of the electrical energy used. Fossil fuel
Fossil fuel
power stations have machinery to convert the heat energy of combustion into mechanical energy, which then operates an electrical generator. The prime mover may be a steam turbine, a gas turbine or, in small plants, a reciprocating internal combustion engine. All plants use the energy extracted from expanding gas, either steam or combustion gases. Very few MHD generators have been built which directly convert the energy of hot, moving water into electricity. MHD means Magnetohydrodynamics, which is the study of the magnetic properties of electrically conducting fluids
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Energy Recovery
Energy
Energy
recovery includes any technique or method of minimizing the input of energy to an overall system by the exchange of energy from one sub-system of the overall system with another. The energy can be in any form in either subsystem, but most energy recovery systems exchange thermal energy in either sensible or latent form. In some circumstances the use of an enabling technology, either diurnal thermal energy storage or seasonal thermal energy storage (STES, which allows heat or cold storage between opposing seasons), is necessary to make energy recovery practicable. One example is waste heat from air conditioning machinery stored in a buffer tank to aid in night time heating. Another is an STES application at a foundry in Sweden. Waste heat
Waste heat
is recovered and stored in a large mass of native bedrock which is penetrated by a cluster of 140 heat exchanger equipped boreholes (155mm diameter) that are 150m deep
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Externality
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.[1] Economists often urge governments to adopt policies that "internalize" an externality, so that costs and benefits will affect mainly parties who choose to incur them.[2] For example, manufacturing activities that cause air pollution impose health and clean-up costs on the whole society, whereas the neighbors of an individual who chooses to fire-proof his home may benefit from a reduced risk of a fire spreading to their own houses. If external costs exist, such as pollution, the producer may choose to produce more of the product than would be produced if the producer were required to pay all associated environmental costs. Because responsibility or consequence for self-directed action lies partly outside the self, an element of externalization is involved
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Electricity Sector In Italy
The electricity sector in Italy
Italy
describes the production, sale, and use of electrical power in Italy
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Turbine
A turbine (from the Latin
Latin
turbo, a vortex, related to the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "turbulence")[1][2] is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. The work produced by a turbine can be used for generating electrical power when combined with a generator or producing thrust, as in the case of jet engines.[3] A turbine is a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and waterwheels. Gas, steam, and water turbines have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid
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Energy Conversion Efficiency
Energy
Energy
conversion efficiency (η) is the ratio between the useful output of an energy conversion machine and the input, in energy terms. The input, as well as the useful output may be chemical, electric power, mechanical work, light (radiation), or heat.[citation needed]Contents1 Overview 2 Fuel
Fuel
heating values and efficiency 3 Wall-plug efficiency, luminous efficiency, and efficacy 4 Example of energy conversion efficiency 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOverview[edit] Energy
Energy
conversion efficiency depends on the usefulness of the output. All or part of the heat produced from burning a fuel may become rejected waste heat if, for example, work is the desired output from a thermodynamic cycle. Energy
Energy
converter is an example of an energy transformation. For example a light bulb falls into the categories energy converter
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Gigawatt
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power. In the International System of Units (SI) it is defined as a derived unit of 1 joule per second,[1] and is used to quantify the rate of energy transfer
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Voltage
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted ∆V or ∆U, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points. The voltage between two points is equal to the work done per unit of charge against a static electric field to move a test charge between two points
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