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Pumped-storage Hydroelectricity
PUMPED-STORAGE HYDROELECTRICITY (PSH), or PUMPED HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE (PHES), is a type of hydroelectric energy storage used by electric power systems for load balancing . The method stores energy in the form of gravitational potential energy of water, pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. Low-cost surplus off-peak electric power is typically used to run the pumps. During periods of high electrical demand, the stored water is released through turbines to produce electric power. Although the losses of the pumping process makes the plant a net consumer of energy overall, the system increases revenue by selling more electricity during periods of peak demand , when electricity prices are highest
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Externality
In economics , an EXTERNALITY is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit. Economists often urge governments to adopt policies that "internalize" an externality, so that costs and benefits will affect mainly parties who choose to incur them. For example, manufacturing activities that cause air pollution impose health and clean-up costs on the whole society, whereas the neighbors of an individual who chooses to fire-proof his home may benefit from a reduced risk of a fire spreading to their own houses. If external costs exist, such as pollution , the producer may choose to produce more of the product than would be produced if the producer were required to pay all associated environmental costs. Because responsibility or consequence for self-directed action lies partly outside the self, an element of externalization is involved
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Electricity Sector In Italy
The ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN ITALY describes the production , sale, and use of electrical power in Italy . The country's total electricity consumption was 297.3 TWh in 2013, of which 278.8 TWh (93.7%) was produced domestically (the remaining 6.3% was imported). According to its national energy plan, Italy plans to increase renewable power generation from all renewable sources to 26% of all electricity produced by 2020, covering 17% of its total energy consumption. In 2014, 38.2% of the national electric energy consumption came from renewable sources (in 2005 this value was 15.4%), covering 16.2% of the total energy consumption of the country (5.3% in 2005). Solar energy production alone accounted for almost 9% of the total electric consumption in the country in 2014, making Italy the country with the highest contribution from solar energy in the world
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United States Department Of Energy International Energy Storage Database
The UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY\'S GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE DATABASE (GESDB) is a free-access database of energy storage projects and policies funded by the U.S. DOE, Office of Electricity and Sandia National Labs . In 2013 the database covered 409 projects; it aimed to cover all energy storage projects globally by 2014. SEE ALSO * Sustainable development portal * Energy portal * List of energy storage projects * Energy storage * Hydroelectricity * Hydropower * United States Department of Energy REFERENCES * ^ Energystorageexchange.org * ^ Siegel, RP (February 25, 2013). "The Pros and Cons of Energy Storage Systems"
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Economies Of Scale
In microeconomics , ECONOMIES OF SCALE are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to size, output, or scale of operation, with cost per unit of output generally decreasing with increasing scale as fixed costs are spread out over more units of output. Economies of scale
Economies of scale
apply to a variety of organizational and business situations and at various levels, such as a business or manufacturing unit, plant or an entire enterprise. For example, economies of scale apply to the fixed cost to produce units of output through production and manufacturing. When average costs start falling then economies of scale are in production with fixed costs being a requirement for the equation. With no fixed costs, the average cost and average variable cost would be equal. Economies of scale
Economies of scale
exist in real life
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Photovoltaic
PHOTOVOLTAICS (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect , a phenomenon studied in physics , photochemistry , and electrochemistry . A typical photovoltaic system employs solar panels , each comprising a number of solar cells , which generate electrical power. PV installations may be ground-mounted, rooftop mounted or wall mounted. The mount may be fixed, or use a solar tracker to follow the sun across the sky. Solar PV has specific advantages as an energy source: its operation generates no pollution and no greenhouse gas emissions once installed, it shows simple scalability in respect of power needs and silicon has large availability in the Earth’s crust. PV systems have the major disadvantage that the power output is dependent on direct sunlight, so about 10-25% is lost if a tracking system is not used, since the cell will not be directly facing the sun at all times
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Fossil Fuel Power Plant
A FOSSIL FUEL POWER STATION is a power station which burns fossil fuel such as coal , natural gas , or petroleum to produce electricity . Central station fossil fuel power plants are designed on a large scale for continuous operation. In many countries, such plants provide most of the electrical energy used. Fossil fuel
Fossil fuel
power stations have machinery to convert the heat energy of combustion into mechanical energy , which then operates an electrical generator . The prime mover may be a steam turbine , a gas turbine or, in small plants, a reciprocating internal combustion engine. All plants use the energy extracted from expanding gas, either steam or combustion gases. Very few MHD generators have been built which directly convert the energy of hot, moving water into electricity. MHD means Magnetohydrodynamics , which is the study of the magnetic properties of electrically conducting fluids
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Frequency
FREQUENCY is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time . It is also referred to as TEMPORAL FREQUENCY, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency . The PERIOD is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example, if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats ). Frequency
Frequency
is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio (sound ) signals, radio waves , and light
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Voltage
VOLTAGE, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, ELECTRIC PRESSURE or ELECTRIC TENSION (formally denoted ∆V or ∆U, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm\'s or Kirchhoff\'s circuit laws ) is the difference in electric potential energy between two points per unit electric charge . The voltage between two points is equal to the work done per unit of charge against a static electric field to move the test charge between two points. This is measured in units of volts (a joule per coulomb ). Voltage
Voltage
can be caused by static electric fields, by electric current through a magnetic field , by time-varying magnetic fields, or some combination of these three. A voltmeter can be used to measure the voltage (or potential difference) between two points in a system; often a common reference potential such as the ground of the system is used as one of the points
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Watt
The WATT (symbol: W) is a unit of power . In the International System of Units (SI) it is defined as a derived unit of 1 joule per second , and is used to quantify the rate of energy transfer . In dimensional analysis it is described by M L 2 T 3 {displaystyle {mathsf {ML}}^{2}{mathsf {T}}^{-3}} . CONTENTS * 1 Examples * 2 Origin and adoption as an SI unit * 3 Multiples * 3.1 Femtowatt * 3.2 Picowatt * 3.3 Nanowatt * 3.4 Microwatt * 3.5 Milliwatt * 3.6 Kilowatt * 3.7 Megawatt * 3.8 Gigawatt * 3.9 Terawatt * 3.10 Petawatt * 4 Conventions in the electric power industry * 5 Radio
Radio
transmission * 6 Distinction between watts and watt-hours * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links EXAMPLESWhen an object's velocity is held constant at one meter per second against a constant opposing force of one newton , the rate at which work is done is 1 watt
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European Union
The EUROPEAN UNION (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture , fisheries , and regional development . Within the Schengen Area , passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency
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Hydropower In China
Hydroelectricity is currently China's largest renewable energy source and the second overall after coal. China's installed hydro capacity in 2015 was 319 GW, up from 172 GW in 2009, including 23 GW of pumped storage hydroelectricity capacity. In 2015, hydropower generated 1,126 TWh of power, accounting for roughly 20% of China's total electricity generation. Due to China's insufficient reserves of fossil fuels and the government's preference for energy independence, hydropower plays a big part in the energy policy of the country. China's potential hydropower capacity is estimated at up to 600 GW, but currently the technically exploitable and economically feasible capacity is around 500 GW. There is therefore considerable potential for further hydro development. The country has set a 350 GW capacity target for 2020
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Huizhou Pumped Storage Power Station
The HUIZHOU PUMPED STORAGE POWER STATION is a pumped storage hydroelectric power station near Huizhou in Guangdong province , China . It contains 8 pump-generators that total a 2,448 megawatts (3,283,000 hp) installed capacity. Initial units went online between 2007 and 2008, and the power station was complete on June 15, 2011. The power station is supplied with water by an upper reservoir which is created by two dams. The main dam is a 56 metres (184 ft) tall and 156 metres (512 ft) long roller-compacted concrete (RCC) dam. The second, auxiliary, dam is 14 metres (46 ft) high and 133 metres (436 ft) long. Once water from the upper reservoir is transferred through the power station, which is located 420 metres (1,380 ft) underground, and electricity produced, it discharges to a lower reservoir . This lower reservoir is created by a single 61 m (200 ft) tall 420 m (1,380 ft) tall RCC dam. The water can then be pumped by the generators back into the upper reservoir for reuse
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Hydroelectricity In Japan
Hydroelectricity is Japan 's main renewable energy source , with an installed capacity of about 50 GW (including pumped storage) and a production of 69.2 TWh of electricity in 2009, making Japan one of the biggest hydroelectricity producers in the world. Most of Japanese hydroelectric power plants are pumped-storage plants. Conventional hydropower plants account for about 20 GW out of the total installed capacity as of 2007. Conventional hydropower potential of Japan is considered to be almost fully developed, with little opportunity for further capacity increase. In recent years, almost exclusively pumped storage plants were commissioned, significantly increasing the ratio of pumped storage capacity over conventional hydro. The large capacity of pumped storage hydropower was built to store energy from nuclear power plants, which until the Fukushima disaster constituted a large part of Japan electricity generation
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Megawatt
The WATT (symbol: W) is a derived unit of power in the International System of Units (SI) defined as 1 joule per second and can be used to quantify the rate of energy transfer . Power has dimensions of M L 2 T 3 {displaystyle {mathsf {ML}}^{2}{mathsf {T}}^{-3}} . CONTENTS * 1 Examples * 2 Origin and adoption as an SI unit * 3 Multiples * 3.1 Femtowatt * 3.2 Picowatt * 3.3 Nanowatt * 3.4 Microwatt * 3.5 Milliwatt * 3.6 Kilowatt * 3.7 Megawatt * 3.8 Gigawatt * 3.9 Terawatt * 3.10 Petawatt * 4 Conventions in the electric power industry * 5 Radio
Radio
transmission * 6 Difference between watts, watt-hours and watts per hour * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links EXAMPLESWhen an object's velocity is held constant at one meter per second against constant opposing force of one newton the rate at which work is done is 1 watt
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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